WHAT'S IN A WORD: Does anyone know what Reardon is claiming?

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 2019

Also, does anyone care?:
Yesterday morning, the Washington Post ran two education reports across the top of page 3.

On the left of the page, the longer report dealt with a relatively pointless topic—average nationwide SAT scores.

To his credit, Nick Anderson explained why you can't sensibly compare such scores from one year to the next given the increasing number of lower-income kids who are taking the test each year.

Given this fact, we aren't sure why the Post keeps reporting those annual scores! That said, no paper is perfect.

That longer report dealt with a rather trivial topic. Right beside it, the shorter report dealt with a topic of giant importance—the very large racial and ethnic "achievement gaps" on display, across the nation, in our public schools.

What can we do to reduce or eliminate these punishing gaps? And by the way, just how large are these gaps? These are very important questions—and they're typically bungled, or ignored, by the upper-end press.

The Post's second report, by Laura Meckler, dealt with a new study by Stanford's Sean Reardon. Below, you see the two headlines which sat atop the report, and its puzzling opening paragraph:
MECKLER (9/24/19): Study: Poverty is driving racial gap in test scores
Segregation concentrates minorities in less-effective schools, researchers find


High concentrations of poverty, not racial segregation, entirely account for the racial achievement gap in U.S. schools, a new study finds.
Say what? Concentrations of poverty "entirely account" for those very large gaps? Could that possibly be true? And of course, much more significantly, what could that possibly mean?

Remember—we're speaking about achievement gaps which seem to be quite large.

Major newspapers and liberal news orgs almost never discuss this awkward topic, or the interests of the good, decent kids who lie on the short end of those gaps. But here you see one such gap, with data drawn from our one reliable domestic testing program:
Average scores, Grade 8 math
U.S. public schools, Naep 2017

White kids: 292.16
Black kids: 259.60
Hispanic kids: 268.49
Asian-American kids: 309.52
Based on a standard but very rough rule of thumb, the average black student was three years behind the average white student by the end of eighth grade, according to this math test. Asian kids were even farther ahead. Stating the obvious, those seem to be punishing gaps.

Those data seem to define punishing racial achievement gaps. But according to Meckler's opening paragraph, high concentrations of poverty "entirely account for" such gaps.

Yesterday morning, when we read this report, we wondered if that claim could really be true. But we also wondered about something more basic:

We wondered what that claim was actually supposed to mean.

What was actually being claimed at the start of this report? We continued to read, hoping to get more clear about what this new study had found.

Below, you see Meckler's first three paragraphs. In our view, these first three paragraphs make no discernible sense:
MECKLER: High concentrations of poverty, not racial segregation, entirely account for the racial achievement gap in U.S. schools, a new study finds.

The research, released Monday, looked at the achievement gap between white students, who tend to have higher scores, and black and Hispanic students, who tend to have lower scores. Researchers with Stanford University wanted to know whether those gaps are driven by widespread segregation in schools or something else.

They found that the gaps were “completely accounted for” by poverty, with students in high-poverty schools performing worse than those from schools with children from wealthier families.
So far, does this make sense? So far, does it make sense to claim that something new has been discovered by the Reardon study?

Citizens, please! Everyone has always known that "students in high-poverty schools perform worse [on average] than those from schools with children from wealthier families."

Everyone has always known that! So far, we have no idea what Reardon's new study claims to have found—nor did the matter become much clearer as Meckler's report continued:
MECKLER (continuing directly): “Racial segregation appears to be harmful because it concentrates minority students in high-poverty schools, which are, on average, less effective than lower-poverty schools,” concluded the paper by academics, led by Sean F. Reardon, professor of poverty and inequality in education and senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.

The study examined scores from hundreds of millions of tests over the past decade by students in thousands of school districts. Researchers found a “very strong link” between racial school segregation and academic achievement gaps. Every school district with “even moderately high” segregation had a large achievement gap, they found.
Every school district with even moderately high segregation had a large achievement gap?

It isn't clear what Reardon means by "segregation" in this context. Presumably, he means that black and Hispanic kids often attend schools whose student bodies are largely, or even entirely, black and Hispanic.

Such schools will typically have more kids from low-income families than the average American school. And it's true that "high-poverty schools" produce much lower achievement levels, on average, than "lower-poverty schools."

That said, these are facts which everyone has known since the dawn of time. Meanwhile, can anyone name any school district which doesn't "have a large achievement gap?" Is Reardon saying that a school district without "racial segregation"—whatever that murky term is supposed to means in this context—wouldn't display any racial achievement gap at all?

Based on what Meckler has written so far, it's very, very hard to know what Reardon's new study is claiming. Is he claiming that a school district without any "racial segregation" (however defined) wouldn't have any racial achievement gap? Could that be what Reardon means?

While we're trying to puzzle this out, let's take things a bit further. Does Reardon mean that low-income black kids in such a school district would score as high, on average, as that district's high-income white kids? Is that the claim this new study is making?

Is that the claim Reardon's study is making? That notion strikes us as a pipe dream. But then again, that may not be what Reardon is claiming. At this point, we simply can't tell from Meckler's murky reporting.

Truth to tell, we don't have the slightest idea what Reardon is actually claiming. Neither did anyone else who read Meckler's report in the Post.

Before Meckler's report is done, she paraphrases Reardon as he tries to flesh out his basic point. Below, you see the way Reardon is characterized—but we still don't know what this means:
MECKLER: In an interview, Reardon explained that a district such as Atlanta has high racial segregation, with white students in generally wealthier schools than black students, and it also has high racial achievement gaps. But in Detroit, where all the students tend to be poor, the achievement gaps are smaller, he said.
Are the racial achievement gaps smaller in Detroit? We would assume that they are—but then, Atlanta and Detroit are vastly different school districts.

As in D.C., the Atlanta system retains a core of upper-income white students. Detroit, whose student enrollment is only 2% white, apparently doesn't. (In Detroit, "all the students tend to be poor," according to Meckler's report.)

We'll assume that Professor Reardon knows what he's talking about. But based on those basic demographics, we don't know why we would be surprised to learn that a city like Atlanta (or D.C.), which retains a core of high-income white kids, would have larger racial achievement gaps than a city like Detroit, where even the white kids are poor.

Alas! After reading Meckler's report, we don't have the slightest idea what Reardon could be claiming. Truth to tell, we still don't know after reading Kevin Drum's attempt to translate through the use of types of statistics no one understands.

What exactly is being claimed by Reardon's new report? In particular, is Reardon claiming that racial gaps would disappear if our public schools were all "integrated" in some way which remains undefined?

We find that very hard to believe. But is that even what Reardon is claiming? After reading Meckler's report, we have no idea.

We offer two basic thoughts:

Typical education reporting: Meckler's report is typical upper-end education reporting.

Through no fault of her own, Meckler isn't an education specialist. In this case, she seems over-matched by this assignment.

This is very typical of education reporting in the Post and especially in the New York Times. In our view, our big newspapers show their disdain for low-income kids when they staff themselves this way.

Typical novelization: Based on Meckler's report, a Post reader might walk away thinking the following:

If we just get rid of public school "segregation" (of a sort which goes undefined), those racial achievement gaps would disappear. That strikes us as highly unlikely, but that seems to be what Meckler says Reardon is claiming.

The white liberal world has been playing this "simple solution" game for more than fifty years now. At various times, the simple solution fairy tale has taken different forms:

If white teachers will only go into urban schools and smile at the kids, those kids will soon be writing novels.

If Teach for America can get enough Princeton grads into low-income schools, the results will be fantastic.

If we pursue the type of "education reform" in which we "raise expectations" and trash teachers unions—and now, if we eliminate "segregation" in some undefined way—those achievement gaps will disappear!

All these feel-good novelized stories served to reassure white liberals. These stories tell us that those gaps are more illusory than real—that they could be eliminated in one fell swoop if some simple solution were pursued.

Those stories say that our brutal racial history actually hasn't created a large and difficult problem. It seems to us that this feel-good story is wrong, but upper-class journalists have always seemed to find this notion reassuring.

These simple stories make us feel that success is just one simple solution away. We always think of Chekhov's tragic, struggling lovers when we liberals behave this way.

"And it seemed to them that in only a few more minutes a solution would be found and a new, beautiful life would begin..."

So Chekhov wrote about his lovers. When we liberals behave this way, it seems to us that we're showing how little we care about the low-income kids who can be found on the short end of those large and punishing gaps.

Tomorrow: On to the state of "segregation" in the D.C. schools

The fuller passage: The last paragraph of The Lady with the Lapdog, as translated by David Magarshack:

"And it seemed to them that in only a few more minutes a solution would be found and a new, beautiful life would begin; but both of them knew very well that the end was still a long, long way away and that the most complicated and difficult part was only just beginning."

55 comments:

  1. If you weren't a bunch of zombies, dear Bob, you would've removed the category of 'race' out of your statistics completely.

    And then you would've found that these so-called 'achievements' correlate perfectly with the socioeconomic environment (no the same as 'poverty', mind you). Just as any reasonable person would expect.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It is not a question of income but of homogeneity of the student body with respect to income. If a poor child is in a school where most of the other children are also poor, he will do worse than if that poor child is at a school with a mix of poor and higher income children. Segregation by income, not low income per se, is the problem being described by Reardon. If you put poor kids in with higher income kids it appears to mitigate the impact of poverty.

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    2. It's not about the income or poverty. Like I said, it's about the socioeconomic environment.

      Now, you can send child from the ghetto into a middle-class school. This will modify the child's environment. Only slightly, because the child will still go home to the ghetto. Still, you might see some improvement in the "achievements". Never mind that these "achievements" are completely useless in the ghetto, where the child lives.

      But it'll also modify the environment of the middle-class children in that school. They now have a child from the ghetto among them. They'll pick up some ghetto attitudes. Their "achievements" will deteriorate. And they could really use them.

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  2. Dembots are on pause, waiting for a new set of talking points?

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    Replies
    1. Q. How many Right-wing accusations are confessions?

      A. All of them Katie.

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  3. "Given this fact, we aren't sure why the Post keeps reporting those annual scores! That said, no paper is perfect."

    Not everyone reading the paper is interested in seeing whether SAT scores are improving from year to year. Some are parents who want to know whether their kids are average or above-average. For that purpose, this year's scores are sufficient.

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  4. "Is Reardon saying that a school district without "racial segregation"—whatever that murky term is supposed to means in this context—wouldn't display any racial achievement gap at all?"

    Why drive this to the extremes by saying "any racial achievement gap at all?" Why not say that there would be less of a gap, that the gap would be smaller, that effects of poverty would be mitigated in schools less segregated by income level (given that racially segregated schools tend to also be income segregated, largely poorer)?

    By insisting that the gap must entirely disappear in order for Reardon to be correct, Somerby makes his own criticism meaningless. There is still .0013 of the effect attributable to racism, which predicts that the gap would not entirely disappear even with complete desegregation, but it would be greatly reduced.

    Reardon is saying that the reason why segregated schools are bad for student performance is that students do less well when grouped with other poverty-stricken students. Poor students, regardless of race, do better when they go to school with middle and upper income students at schools with better resources.

    If Somerby wishes to say this is obvious, why is he so aggressively opposing desegregation of schools?

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  5. Apparently Reardon is erroneously taking correlation as proof of causation. The phrase "driven by" is not justified by the statistics.

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    Replies
    1. David, as you well know, one cannot prove causality using any correlational study. Further, it is unethical and thus impossible to do a study that would prove causation, because one cannot assign one group of children to be poor while another is assigned to be rich, then study the effects longitudinally. So we use the existing groups of children, already segmented into poor and rich by their life experiences. Even so, statistical methods can reliably show causality by testing directionality of predictors and the weights of coefficients using different models of causality. That is too much for Drum to explain to novices. Under the methods widely accepted and used throughout social science, the phrase "driven by" is entirely justified by the statistics.

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    2. "the phrase "driven by" is entirely justified by the statistics."

      Meh. The factors that they correlate with poor "achievements" could themselves be consequences of some other factor(s).

      For example, poverty could be caused, a-la Murray, by genetic deficiencies. In that case, how is "driven by" justified here?

      Delete
    3. wow it's all falling apart for Mao

      Delete
  6. "Alas! After reading Meckler's report, we don't have the slightest idea what Reardon could be claiming. Truth to tell, we still don't know after reading Kevin Drum's attempt to translate through the use of types of statistics no one understands."

    It is untrue that "no one understands" the statistics discussed by Drum. Those who take statistics courses and have some training in measurement in education understand Reardon's report. Drum does fine explaining it.

    Somerby didn't bother studying statistics or psychology or education at Harvard. HE doesn't understand, but in his hubris, he feels perfectly free to discard the explanations, even of those he usually trusts (such as Drum), because they don't fit his prejudices. Way to model a closed mind, Somerby!

    The conclusion one must draw, based on Reardon's report, is that desegregation is worthwhile and should be pursued by school districts. It apparently doesn't matter whether you do it by race or by SES of parents, since race tends to be a proxy for income level in our society. But Reardon's report is very important for discounting those (like David in Cal) who want to say (or imply) that black children cannot perform well because they are innately inferior.

    A wider issue is whether there exists a "culture of poverty" that includes ineffective parenting practices and similar problems. Oscar Lewis proposed that back in the 60s but impugning the abilities of the poor is out of style now and perhaps unfair in an economy that has such built-in injustice and ever fewer means of escaping poverty from generation to generation. Campaigns to help all parents prepare their kids for school and later life, seem to be a good idea regardless of the answers to such questions. Middle and upper class parents will already know how to do that, but poor parents need to share in that knowledge.

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  7. Are the gaps smaller at these schools because the black students are overperfoming, or the white students are underperforming? Seems like an obvious and important question.

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    Replies
    1. Seems like this has been answered. It depends on the percentages of poor vs middle/upper class students. It is not a matter of white/black but of income.

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    2. That doesn't answer my question.

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  8. "If we just get rid of public school "segregation" (of a sort which goes undefined), those racial achievement gaps would disappear. That strikes us as highly unlikely, but that seems to be what Meckler says Reardon is claiming. "

    Somerby complains that this is also a simplistic solution, pie-in-the-sky. However, you can see whether this claim is likely or not by simply looking at how well middle class black children perform at largely middle class schools. Is there a gap there? My understanding is that it does shrink considerably. It wouldn't go away entirely because there is still a small contribution of race to Reardon's model, albeit very small. This data supports Reardon's claim. On what basis does Somerby disagree?

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    1. Wealthy blacks do about as well on the SAT as poor whites.

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    2. the top black SAT score is as high as the top white SAT score

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  9. Perhaps a post that actually examines Reardon’s study would be in order, minus the snark and the pre-determined sententiousness. It would be easier to judge whether Meckler’s paraphrase is accurate in that case. It would also help provide answers to all those questions Somerby has where he wonders “Is Reardon claiming...?”, which can serve to poison the waters against Reardon and open the door to wild speculations.

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  10. 'When we liberals behave this way, it seems to us that we're showing how little we care about the low-income kids who can be found on the short end of those large and punishing gaps.'

    That should read 'we Trumptards', since Somerby is a Trumptard.

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  11. ‘can anyone name any school district which doesn't "have a large achievement gap?"’

    This question is puzzling. Presumably, there is a range of NAEP scores in any given school district based upon the varying abilities of individual students. The scores fit a normal distribution. So in a district where all residents have similar income, this distribution reflects a perfectly normal variability. Of course, the discussion in the Reardon study is about gaps between racial/ethnic groups, which arise because the average score for black students , for example, is much lower than that of white students. Somerby shows us that, but then seems to confuse the issue by asking this bizarre question. If seems like an attempt at misdirection.

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  12. “All these feel-good novelized stories served to reassure white liberals. These stories tell us that those gaps are more illusory than real—that they could be eliminated in one fell swoop if some simple solution were pursued.”

    Who said that integration would be simple?

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  13. “All these feel-good novelized stories served to reassure white liberals. These stories tell us that those gaps are more illusory than real—that they could be eliminated in one fell swoop if some simple solution were pursued.”

    The same could be said about any effort to reduce the gaps. For example, “it’s reassuring to white liberals to think that simply by teaching poor kids more vocabulary, as with “Too Small To Fail”, the achievement gaps could be eliminated.” All of the liberal ideas, such as the Clinton Foundation’s “Too Small To Fail”, or Raspberry’s “Baby Steps” (praised in the pages of TDH), universal pre-k, universal child care, increased minimum wage, etc, can all help solve the problem. Integration is another idea that, when coupled with all of these other ideas, could help alleviate the gaps, especially since segregation has been shown to widen the gaps.

    ReplyDelete
  14. “School poverty – not racial composition – limits educational opportunity, according to new research at Stanford
    “Racial segregation leads to growing achievement gaps – but it does so entirely through differences in school poverty, according to new research from education Professor Sean Reardon, ...”

    “...they controlled for racial differences in school poverty and found that segregation no longer predicted the achievement gaps. That meant the association between racial segregation and the growth of achievement gaps operated entirely through differences in school poverty.

    “While racial segregation is important, it’s not the race of one’s classmates that matters, per se,” said Reardon. “It’s the fact that in America today, racial segregation brings with it very unequal concentrations of students in high- and low-poverty schools.”
    (https://news.stanford.edu/2019/09/23/new-data-tool-shows-school-poverty-leads-racial-achievement-gap/)

    How many times, and in how many ways, do some of you have to be shown similar research results before you get it? It’s not the racial desegregation per se, it’s the money.

    Also from Stanford:
    WHAT EXPLAINS WHITE-BLACK DIFFERENCES IN AVERAGE TEST SCORES (https://edopportunity.org/discoveries/white-black-differences-scores/)
    “It is common to assume that these gaps have a straightforward explanation: White students tend to live in wealthier communities, where schools often have more resources and are presumed to be better. The data, though, do not support this argument. In general, gaps in academic performance are quite large when children enter school in kindergarten, a pattern we can’t blame on schools. Moreover, the gaps grow relatively little while children are in school, which is not what we’d expect if schools were primarily responsible.“

    I suggest reading the entire article and, as time allows, google “John Ogbu” and read everything, for and against, to find out about middle-class blacks in suburban schools and the difference between immigrants and natives of any given ethnic group.




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  15. Bob Somerby is the kindest, bravest, warmest, most wonderful human being I've ever known.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bob Somerby is the David in Cal of Mike Drudges.

      Delete
  16. "does anyone care?"

    No.

    This has been another in the series Simple Answers to Really Easy Questions.

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  17. ""And it seemed to them that in only a few more minutes a solution would be found and a new, beautiful life would begin; but both of them knew very well that the end was still a long, long way away and that the most complicated and dfficult part was only just beginning."

    I read this story because Somerby recommended it. This passage concerns a woman in an unhappy arranged marriage who is trying to find a way to be with her lover.

    That is hardly the kind of problem or solution that we mean when we talk about closing achievement gaps or achieving integration of our schools.

    Using this story as an analogy to school integration or any other knotty social problem makes Somerby sound like a moron.

    Then he says (in so many words) that if we don't give up because integration is too complicated to solve, we don't really care about minority kids. As if that made any sense!

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    Replies
    1. Dear God! Tell me that you didn’t read the quote (which turns out to be about a woman in an unhappy marriage) and conclude that TDH is comparing our problems in public education to unhappy marriages.

      Because no one is that clueless. Either you’re trolling the blog or you’ve fallen and hit your head. In either case, get help now.

      Integration isn’t “too complicated.” Integration, by most definitions, simply isn’t possible in many urban school districts because of housing patterns and the legal landscape. If all you do is focus on impossible solutions, then TDH says you don’t really care about the problem.

      Clear now?

      Delete
    2. "Either you’re trolling the blog or you’ve fallen and hit your head."

      That's one way to describe "Others".

      Delete
    3. As my father was fond of saying,

      The difficult we do right away.
      The impossible takes a little longer.

      Delete
    4. That's one way to describe "Others”.

      No, that’s one way to describe the clueless, the ignorant, or the stupid. I’m not saying that @2:25P and I aren’t on the same side of the political divide. I wouldn’t be at all surprised if we had the same view of the importance of closing achievement gaps or the benefits of diversity in pubic schools.

      But no matter; @2:25P’s comment was dumb, David in Cal levels of dumb.

      It’s not too late, @8:29A, for you to jump off the dumb train. I recommend it to you.

      Delete
  18. No fish today. Somerby is no doubt watching the hearing and trying to figure out how to defend Trump.

    Hints: (1) Most Republicans are calling this a Democratic "rush to judgment", (2) Lindsay Graham is saying that Democrats are crazy when it comes to Trump. Let's see which tack Somerby takes. I predict he will do more concern trolling about the effect on the election if we try to impeach Trump (a done deal in the House, iffy in the Senate). He will tell us Trump could win because of publicizing his wrongdoing and trying to remove him from office.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "iffy" in the Senate? That' adorable. Really.

      I think the House has a duty to impeach given what Trump's already confessed about his excellent Ukraine adventure. But do you really think impeachment couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to his re-election?

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    2. "do you really think impeachment couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to his re-election?"

      As opposed to any other made-up nonsense that might energize his base? Quit the concern trolling, deadrat. We're not buying it.

      Delete
    3. Do you really think wanting equality for all couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to his re-election?

      Do you really think nominating a woman or a person of color to run against Trump couldn't energize his base and lead to his re-election?

      Do you really think rooting out corruption in the government couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to re-election?

      Do you really think the Democratic nominee ordering a hamburger with Swiss cheese on it couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to his re-election.

      Do you really think...etc.

      IOW, fuck those dead-enders.

      Delete
    4. The Republican/ Russian assets in the Senate will never impeach Trump. Who cares? Note their treason against the USA, and mention it every time they speak in public.

      Delete
    5. Do you really think wanting equality for all couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to his re-election?

      I think this one is unlikely.Trump’s already got all the Tiki-Torch Nazis.

      Do you really think nominating a woman or a person of color to run against Trump couldn't energize his base and lead to his re-election?

      I think this one is dead certain. The tsunami of racism and/or misogyny that Trump has made socially acceptable will swamp any woman or POC who’s nominated.

      Do you really think rooting out corruption in the government couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to re-election?

      I think the voter market has already discounted this one. Since January 2019, The House has been shining a light into the sewer that is the Trump administration. Some of the denizens have already been flushed. Trump’s support ticks up and down by a couple of points.

      Do you really think the Democratic nominee ordering a hamburger with Swiss cheese on it couldn't energize or enlarge his base and lead to his re-election.

      I think it would get cheers at the MAGA rallies, but would the trivial bullshit enlarge the base? I doubt it. But we’re not talking trivial bullshit. We’re talking about actually getting rid of the man who makes these losers feel like winners.

      Do you really think...etc.

      IOW, fuck those dead-enders.


      Polls say those dead-enders are a reliable 40% of the electorate. So what does 40% + Russian meddling + unlimited money + electoral rat-fucking + the electoral college + low unemployment equal? You don’t have to check the back of the book to know the answer is close to winning re-election.

      Maybe I’m wrong. I hope so, but let’s not pretend that impeachment couldn’t be a big boost for Trump.

      Delete
    6. Quit the concern trolling, deadrat. We're not buying it.

      We? Another commenter with a hamster in his pocket.

      Delete
    7. deadrat,
      Unlike the hamster in your pocket (Bob Somerby), my hamster is a liberal.

      Delete
    8. You numpty, you can't even get your metaphors straight. I'm supposed to be Somerby's pet,so I'd be in his pocket.

      How long have you been talking politics with your hamster?

      Delete
    9. Bob Somerby is the David in Cal of Mike Drudges.

      Delete
    10. "How long have you been talking politics with your hamster?"

      6 months. I call Mr. Anti-Bob, because he doesn't repeat Right-wing nonsense memes.

      Delete
    11. Ask Mr. Anti-Bob to list all those right-wing memes that TDH supposedly repeats. He won't be able to name them any more than you can. Then ask him if there's anything you could post here that can make you look more clueless.

      I'll bet Anti-Bob says absolutely nothing.

      Delete
    12. Mr. Anti-Bob won't be able to make that list. Not because it's impossible. Not because he's just a hamster. But because Mr. Anti-Bob is a liberal, coastal elite who looks down at the Heartland of America types who live in "flyover" country.

      Now watch deadbeat miss Mr. Anti-Bob's point.

      Delete
    13. Now watch deadrat miss Mr. Anti-Bob's point.

      Delete
    14. Even a hamster should be able to point out that blaming Liberals for Right-wing malfeasance is a Right-wing meme.

      Delete
    15. Let's get specific and pick a piece of right-wing malfeasance. It's easy to do as there are a wealth of possibilities. How about setting up filthy concentration camps to keep children away from their immigrant parents just to make a political point that our government hates foreigners.

      Please name a liberal (or anybody else) who puts the blame for those camps on anyone but the right-wingers and assorted apparatchiks who established those camps.

      Or pick your favorite example of right-wing malfeasance.

      Ask your hamster for help if you have to.

      Delete
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  21. my ex boyfriend Peter and I.have been dating for 8 months, and we have been talking about getting married and spending the rest of our lives together. But things started to changed Peter he isn’t willingly to be fully committed relationship and every time we talk about these things with each other he keeps walking away and gets upset about it. also i was heartbroken,
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    left me i didn’t have any idea on how to restore my relationship back, But through the internet i was able to get the details of this powerful spell caster
    called Dr.Noble whose details are:templeofjoyandprosperity1@gmail.com Call or WhatsApp: +2348145643630
    Whom i contacted and my broken relationship became restored within 11 hours,thanks Dr,your kindness will never be forgotten.

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  22. Hello everyone out there, help me Thank Dr UGO! My name is MRS LINDA from Netherlands. I am here to give testimony on how I got my ex husband back, my husband left me for no reason 6 Months. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good and she said that he told her all about her life history and the problem she is facing, I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. She begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called Great Dr UGO. I still didn't believe, but inside me I wanted to give a try and as God will have it, I used the spell solution he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling husband Romero last month. He apologized and came back to me. I'm very happy now with my family it worked for me and I believe it will work for you too just give him a try and follow up this is a clear truth from a testifier. Thank you Dr UGO once again, if you want to reach him via email:(dr.ugo.temple@gmail.com) 

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  23. Hello everyone out there, help me Thank Dr UGO! My name is MRS LINDA from Netherlands. I am here to give testimony on how I got my ex husband back, my husband left me for no reason 6 Months. He moved in with another woman, I felt like killing myself, my life became very bitter and sorrowful. Then 1 day, a friend of mine told me about a great spell caster that is very good and she said that he told her all about her life history and the problem she is facing, I didn't believe it because I've worked with so many of them and it didn't work. She begged me further so I decided to try this great spell caster called Great Dr UGO. I still didn't believe, but inside me I wanted to give a try and as God will have it, I used the spell solution he gave me and the next day I received a call from my darling husband Romero last month. He apologized and came back to me. I'm very happy now with my family it worked for me and I believe it will work for you too just give him a try and follow up this is a clear truth from a testifier. Thank you Dr UGO once again, if you want to reach him via email:(dr.ugo.temple@gmail.com) 

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  24. HELLO EVERYONE.. FEW MUNINETS TO REDY THIS INFOR ON HERPES CURE 2018..
    2017 MY MOTHER WAS DIAGNOSED OF HERPES/ KNOWN AS GENITAL WARTS ,I SPENT A LOT OF MONEY ON HER MEDICATION TILL A POINT I EVEN LOST HOPE,BECAUSE MY MOTHER WAS GRADUALLY DYING AND LOST HER MEMORY TOO, I WAS SO DESPERATE TO GET MY MOTHER BACK TO NORMAL, ONE DAY MY UNCLE WHO LIVES IN LONDON UNITED KINGDOM TOLD ME ABOUT DR OLIHA ,WHO HELPED HIM GET RID OF HERPES /GENITAL WART WITH HERBAL MEDICINE AND HIS HERBAL SOAP ,I WAS SO SHOCKED WHEN HE TOLD ME ABOUT THIS ,ALTHOUGH I NEVER BELIEVE IN HERB BUT, I KEEP TO BELIEVE BECAUSE MY UNCLE CAN'T TELL ME LIES WHEN IT COMES TO HEALTH CONDITION I CONTACTED DR OLIHA VIA HIS EMAIL; OLIHA.MIRACLEMEDICINE@GMAIL.COM , YOU CAN TALK TO HIM VIA CALL OR WHATSAPP MESSENGER ON +2349038382931 , HE REPLIED AND ASK ME TO SEND MY HOME ADDRESS AND MY MOTHER'S DETAIL AND THEN I PURCHASED THE HERBAL MEDICINE,SENT ME THE HERBAL MEDICINE THROUGH COURIER SERVICE, WHEN I RECEIVED THIS HERBAL MEDICINE USED IT FOR 2 WEEKS, AND 4 DAYS OF USAGE THE WARTS FELL OFF, MY MOTHER I NOW TOTALLY CURED AND MY MOTHER IS LIVING FREE AND HAPPY AGAIN. YOU CAN TALK TO DR VIA HIS MOBILE NUMBER OR WHATS APP HIM ON +2349038382931 or website i saw on the :https://olihamiraclemedicine.webs.com/    ALL THANKS TO DOCTOR DR OLIHA  

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