BACK TO SCHOOL PREVIEW: Beware the nation’s lofty professors!

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 2, 2015

Part 3—Background on worst study yet:
As a general matter, it’s a bad sign when kids get suspended, or even expelled, from their public schools.

Sometimes, principals have to do it. But in the overall scheme of things, it suggests that something’s gone wrong.

That said, a lot of kids get suspended from school in any particular year. Meanwhile, here’s another fact which has long been known:

For whatever reason or reasons, black kids are more likely to get suspended than other kids. Two years ago, a USA Today news report presented the numbers like this:
KELMAN (5/12/13): Black students are suspended more than three times as often as their white classmates, twice as often as their Latino classmates and more than 10 times as often as their Asian classmates in middle and high schools nationwide, a new study shows.

The average American secondary student has an 11% chance of being suspended in a single school year, according to the study from the University of California-Los Angeles Civil Rights project. However, if that student is black, the odds of suspension jump to 24%.
We haven’t fact-checked those numbers, some of which seem amazingly large. That said, we know of no reason to doubt the size of the general disproportion. Earlier this year, a news report in the Minneapolis Star-Tribune presented some numbers for the state of Minnesota, which is widely known to be in the north. “Black students accounted for 40 percent of all suspensions of a day or more in 2014, up from 38 percent in 2010, even though they make up less than 10 percent of the student population,” the Star-Tribune reported.

It has long been understood—black kids get suspended, and even expelled, at substantially higher rates. Presumably, it would be helpful to understand why that pattern obtains. Something which wasn’t especially helpful was the new study, released last week, by two professors at Penn.

For various reasons, the professors’ basic claims are rather hard to parse. But they seem to say that black kids get suspended and expelled at especially high rates in the South.

That doesn’t actually seem to be true. But it seems to be what the study suggests or alleges.

When this study was released last week, its findings were reported in the New York Times. From there, reporting jumped to other major news orgs—to NPR and PBS; to the Atlantic and the National Journal; to Education Week and Slate; to the Christian Science Monitor and many regional newspapers.

Next week, we’ll look at the way those major news orgs reported this Ivy League back-to-school study. For today, let’s present some basic background information—the kind of background information any journalist would have accessed in the course of reviewing this study.

What exactly are Professors Smith and Harper asserting? Below, you see the start of the statement on their cover sheet, which closely follows their executive summary. Headline or title included:
SMITH AND HARPER: Disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and expulsion on Black students in Southern states

Nationally, 1.2 million Black students were suspended from K-12 public schools in a single academic year—55% of those suspensions occurred in 13 Southern states.
Districts in the South also were responsible for 50% of Black student expulsions from public schools in the United States.

This report aims to make transparent the rates at which school discipline practices and policies impact Black students in every K-12 public school district in 13 Southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. Despite comprising only 20.9% of students in the 3,022 districts analyzed, Blacks were suspended and expelled at disproportionately high rates.
As you can see, the professors’ logic is already strained in that last highlighted sentence. Beyond that, a factual problem quickly arises:

Inside their rather short report, the professors state, at several points, that black kids “were 24% of students in the 3,022 districts we analyzed,” not the 20.9 percent they present on their cover sheet.

Whatever! It’s close enough for academic work about black kids at an Ivy League institution!

At any rate, it would be easy to draw a false conclusion from this presentation. It would be easy to think that black kids get suspended at higher rates in those Southern states than in the rest of the nation.

The professors never actually say that, but it’s an easy conclusion to draw. The scholars keep stressing an apparent disproportion, a disproportion which seems to shock the conscience. That disproportion is this:

The professors studied just thirteen states, out of fifty states in all. But those measly thirteen states accounted for 50 percent of all expulsions of black kids—and for 55 percent of all suspensions!

It’s easy to think, from those statistics, that Southern schools are suspending black kids at higher rates than schools in other regions. Indeed, the professors seem to make that suggestion in some of their interviews about this study. And in their official press release, they seem to make the same suggestion:
SMITH AND HARPER (8/25/15): In schools across the United States, Black students are punished more severely than their peers. But nowhere are Black students suspended or expelled more than in the South. Fifty-five percent of the 1.2 million Black students suspended in the U.S. live in just 13 Southern states.

[...]

“The findings in our report point to the residual effects of Jim Crow, slavery, and unequal schooling,” Harper said. “They are further explained by poverty trends, structural inequities in the education workforce, and a longstanding history of racial injustice that cyclically reproduces itself, especially across these 13 Southern states.”
Gosh darn those goldarn Southern crackers, what with their legacy of Jim Crow and slavery and their longstanding history of racial injustice!

Are black kids treated especially harshly in public schools in the South? Are they suspended more often in the South than in the rest of the country?

If you care about black kids, those are important questions. But as any journalist would surely know, we need some background information before we can answer those questions!

Duh! As any journalist would instantly see, we need this basic background fact: What percentage of black public school students actually live in the South?

The answer to that is a buzzkill. According to the NCES, 58 percent of black public school students lived in the South in the 2011-12 school year, the year the professors are discussing. Nationally, there were 7.803 million black public school students that year, 4.545 million of whom were living in the South.

Those federal data include three jurisdictions the professors didn’t include in their study—Oklahoma, Delaware and the District of Columbia. But those three jurisdictions seem to have totaled only 140,000 black public school students in the year in question.

Subtracting those kids from the federal government’s regional total, we find that roughly 56 percent of the nation’s black kids were attending school in the thirteen states the professors cover in their study.

Let’s be clear! This basic background information doesn’t change one important fact. In those thirteen Southern states, black kids were suspended from school more often than other kids.

On the other hand, this basic background information does debunk an impression which is easily drawn from this fiery new study:

The thirteen states the professors studied contained 56 percent of the nation’s black kids—and they produced 55 percent of black student suspensions! This seems to mean that black kids were getting suspended in those Southern states at roughly the same rates which obtained in the rest of the country.

After Labor Day, we’ll show you how the nation’s journalists reported the findings of this study, whose incompetent construction ought to embarrass Penn. In turn, the performance of those journalists ought to embarrass the nation’s press corps, although it has long been clear that nothing can or will.

For today, let’s focus on one more bit of background information. This relates to a troubling claim the professors fed to the press.

How bad are things in those Southern states? The professors decided to highlight this troubling fact, and the journalists bit:
SMITH AND HARPER: In 84 districts, Blacks were 100% of the students suspended from public schools.
Presumably, this fact was intended to shock the conscience. In 84 districts (out of more than 3000), “Blacks were 100% of the students suspended from public schools.”

Inevitably, that fact sounded very familiar, and also very bad. But as any journalist automatically would, we made a command decision.

We decided to review those 84 districts in the state-by-state data the study provides. When we did, we quickly noted two facts:

First, many of these “100 percenter” districts are small districts which are essentially all-black. Almost surely, they aren’t the sorts of districts which came to mind when journalists read (and repeated) the professors’ troubling factoid.

Consider Alabama. Alabama boasted ten of the districts in which every student suspended that year was black.

Those districts included Wilcox County, whose schools were 99.3 black; Sumter County, 98.5 percent black; Greene County, 98.4 percent black; Fairfield City, 98.0 percent black; and Macon County, 97.3 percent black.

Also included was Linden City, with a student enrollment of 515, 97.3 percent of whom were black. In short, Linden City had 14 white kids in its schools that year, none of whom got suspended. Meanwhile, how many black kids got suspended in Linden City that year?

That information isn’t included in the report. It could be as few as one.

Here’s a second fact we noticed—many of the districts the professors list aren’t really “districts” at all. Instead, they’re small, stand-alone charter schools, whose student populations may be wholly black.

Louisiana boasts sixteen of the “100 percenter” districts about which the professors warn us. Twelve of these “districts” are charter schools, not actual “districts” at all. Eleven are located in New Orleans, with small student enrollments which range from 97 to 100 percent black.

One such Louisiana “district” was New Vision Learning Academy, a charter school in Monroe with 364 students, 100 percent of whom were black. Another such “district” was the Friends of King charter school or schools in New Orleans, which had 464 students that year, all of whom were black.

The professors want us reeling in horror at the news that, in these Southern “school districts,” 100 percent of the students suspended that year were black! It’s hard to have sufficient contempt for professors who behave this way, or for a university like Penn, which releases their con to the nation.

After Labor Day, we’re going to review the way our journalists reported this deeply incompetent study. Perhaps we should put the word “journalists” in quotes, just as we did with “districts.”

Trust us—it only gets worse as we review the work of the journalists. Essentially, we live in a land where no such people exist.

Our elites are full of contempt for black kids. It starts at our loftiest pseudo-liberal sites and includes the work of multimillionaire heroes like Maddow.

The contempt begins at schools like Penn. It oozes from every pore.

Tomorrow: Heading toward the weekend

Another outrageous school district: As noted, Alabama boasts ten of the professors’ “100 percenter” school districts. They tend to be small rural districts whose students are almost solely black kids.

Another one of the “100 percenter” districts really did stand out. We refer, of course, to the Brantwood Children’s Home, “a home for abused and neglected children who need one.”

The Brantwood Children’s Home is located in Montgomery. It attempts to find adoptive parents for its homeless children. In the school year in question, it had a total enrollment of 15 kids—eight black kids, seven white.

At least one black kid got suspended that year. None of the white kids did. That turned it into one of the districts the professors warned us about.

At some point, CBS News did a three-minute report on this troubling Southern place. Do yourself a giant favor.

Go ahead—give it a look.

48 comments:

  1. "In his “Introduction to Multicultural Literature,” professor John Streamas informs students in his syllabus that he expects white students who want “to do well in this class” to “reflect” their “grasp of history and social relations” by “deferring to the experiences of people of color.”

    "Fowler orders, students must say “‘undocumented’ migrants/immigrants/persons” and not “‘illegal alien’ or ‘illegals'” because of the media outlet’s preference.

    Public university students who dare to use the phrase “illegal alien” “will suffer a deduction of one point per incident,” Fowler warns"

    https://ccgrs.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2015/08/20153_CES220_Streamas.pdf

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This is what happens when the neurosis of the left is allowed to affect policy.

      Delete
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  2. As any journalist would see, yes, but also as a professor conducting a study would have to know, as well. It strikes me that the professors are worse than the journalists, because we already knew most journalists are innumerate and easily fooled by "experts", but now we know that the "experts" are willing to shill for their thesis without shame.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Black children ARE treated differently, and it is a nationwide problem, not a Southern one particularly

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    2. If you mean black kids get into Ivy schools with abysmal SAT scores while whites are penalized for better scores and Asians are penalized for perfect scores, yes they are.

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    3. Education professors often hire statisticians to deal with the numbers in their dissertations, and later in their papers. A statistician won't know where the numbers came from -- just how to apply the appropriate statistical tests to data provided by the professors. That's part of how these difficulties arise. Should ALL professors in all fields, not just in the sciences, be better prepared in statistics and other math -- definitely. But, it is a national problem that our graduates avoid math and wind up under-prepared in it, especially outside the STEM fields.

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    4. Education professors often hire statisticians to deal with the numbers in their dissertations, and later in their papers. A statistician won't know where the numbers came from -- just how to apply the appropriate statistical tests to data provided by the professors.

      You might be correct, but that's shockingly improper behavior on the part of the statistician. My wife is a bio-statistician who collaborated on an enormous number of medical studies. Her biggest job was supervising the data collection and making sure the data was accurate and appropriate. She wouldn't have agreed to analyze a bunch of data from some unknown source.

      But, perhaps there are statistical analysts out there who have different ethical standards...

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    5. It's really wanton corruption in both cases. Utterly inexcusable in the case of the professors, but equally so with the journalists. It's not an especially tricky case. As I read those numbers, I thought "hmmm, I wonder what percentage of black students attend schools in those 13 states." It's the most obvious question in the world. You'd pretty much have to intentionally turn a blind eye to fail to ask it. Almost surely, that's what happened here.

      Essentially, problems faced by black students in America was used as a cudgel to malign southern white people. But it feels so good.

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    6. @12:25. This is a matter of job description not ethics. Your wife would not be qualified to collect data in my field. I doubt she is qualified to administer educational tests either. Statisticians don't collect census data either. The idea that it is unethical for statisticians to analyze data they didn't collect is ridiculous.

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  3. If this is allegedly about white racism, then why are white students punished at alarmingly greater rates than Asian students? If there is any racism here it is Asian supremacism and anti white, black, and hispanic.

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    Replies
    1. "If this is allegedly about white racism..."

      Even if it is about the legacy of slavery in the South, it isn't about "white racism." It is about quality of schools, expectations for students, funding and resources, teacher preparation, and many other things with a direct impact on students.

      Are you familiar with the tendency of Asian families, especially immigrant families, to be disproportionately accused of child abuse because of cultural differences in the way they discipline their children harshly at home for school misbehavior? How might such differences affect school suspensions? Does that imply "Asian supremacism"?

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    2. I demand to know why our white children are being so harshly discriminated against. Either expel more Asians, or expel less white children to equalize the racial outcomes.

      Delete
  4. Bob constantly undermines our efforts to make black kids hate themselves and their lot in life. This makes them less likely to grow up and angrily vote Democrat. How can he call himself a liberal?

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  5. Good analysis by Mr. Somerby today.
    It is depressing to see statistics abused like this, especially, as noted by in a comment earlier, by academics who should know better. By masking the real possible issue (blacks being suspended/expelled at higher rates), and allowing a false one to take hold (blacks being suspended/expelled at higher rates in the south), the academics ensure that any resolution will only be delayed further.

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  6. There is a literature documenting greater expressivity among African Americans. It seems to me that might account for an increased number of expulsions and suspensions. Kids who complain and who talk back to teachers or administrators may be more likely to get into more serious trouble.

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    Replies
    1. No anonymous, don't you understand there are absolutely no differences in behavior among the races. Please recant your thoughtcrime.

      Delete
  7. The confusion that bob alludes to starts right out with the ambiguous headline,
    DISPROPORTIONATE IMPACT OF K-12 SCHOOL SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION ON BLACK STUDENTS IN SOUTHERN STATES

    The headline doesn't say what the rates are disproportionate to. Are blacks suspended more than whites and Asians in the South? Or, are blacks in the South suspended more than blacks in other regions?

    ReplyDelete
  8. Welcome to The Daily VDARE.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. ..because if you don't obediently promulgate the widespread lies and deception of mass media you are a neo-nazi?

      Delete
    2. Nice strawman. Have fun:

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3pwIez-4go

      Delete
    3. I enjoy Bob's blog, but it's no VDARE. More like a step up from Ron Unz and a step down from Steve Sailer.

      Delete
    4. " ... but it's no VDARE." he /she/it said wistfully.

      Delete
    5. VDARE is your grandfather's Oldsmobile. The hep young cats hang out at the Daily Stormer.

      Delete
  9. The study wanted to highlight Southern racist. Once you have the ratios, it is evident that the problem exists most everywhere. Why is there the need to define racism as only a Southern problem? Why did the authors not present it straight up: Black students are expelled and suspend at higher rates than other students. Cover some of the various school policies on suspension. Explore if the policies are unevenly enforced or disproportionally single out African-American students? Then go on and control for poor students, single family, rural districts – and for good measures, what has happened to detention?

    In the reporting on de facto segregation in schools, it was again the South that bore the criticism. Yet again, de facto segregation is a national problem. It is often said that it is the South that keeps fighting the Civil War. It seems as if the North keeps the focus on racial problems fixed as South only. With studies and reporting like this, we Northerners are good, and those Southerners are bad. Tim

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "Why did the authors not present it straight up: Black students are expelled and suspend at higher rates than other students. Cover some of the various school policies on suspension. Explore if the policies are unevenly enforced or disproportionally single out African-American students? Then go on and control for poor students, single family, rural districts – and for good measures, what has happened to detention?"

      Woah, woah, woah. Hold on, there. That all sounds like a bunch of hard work. Better to just blame the southerners and call it a day. Fits neatly with the narrative, and it's easy to do.

      Delete
    2. "Better to blame the southerners ..."

      Speaking of narratives.

      Delete
    3. "Woah, woah, woah. Hold on, there. That all sounds like a bunch of hard work."

      It sounds like a study which would require access to confidential data on individual students that two academicians from Penn are likely not going to be granted.

      Bob as you know "cares" so much about black kids like the ones he taught three decades or more back. He tells us "It has long been understood—black kids get suspended, and even expelled, at substantially higher rates. Presumably, it would be helpful to understand why that pattern obtains."
      Presumably he would have covered this issue, but except to deride studies like this one and the one on preschool discipline, he would rather jump off his analyst's playpen than write about it.

      So, Matt, if you want a study like that you will have to go here:

      BREAKING
      SCHOOLS' RULES:
      A Statewide Study of How School Discipline Relates
      to Students’ Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement


      It is from Texas. By Texans. Who has access. They found pretty much the same thing as the two prof's from Penn.

      http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Breaking_Schools_Rules_Report_Final.pdf

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    4. No worries, he doesn't.

      Delete
  10. I love the way that is stated though - "The average American secondary student has an 11% chance of being suspended ..." Really? 11%? Is there any way a student could perhaps INCREASE those odds? Maybe by flipping the principal the bird? Maybe by starting a food fight at lunch? Maybe by smoking in the boy's room? On the other hand, are there things that students could do, or refrain from doing, which would DECREASE the odds? Or are students suspended by a lottery?

    ReplyDelete
  11. Those suspended are individual people suspended by individual teachers following individual school policy. The most im important questions about student suspensions have nothing to do with race. E.g.
    1. Are too many students suspended?
    2. Are too few students suspended, so that their classmates suffer?
    3. What policies should be used instead of suspension?
    4. Are students suspended for the right reasons?
    5. What's the impact on a suspended student? Is it negative or is it a valuable wake-up call?
    6. How can suspensions be made more useful to the suspendee?

    These are hard question, although good answers might lead to improved education for everyone. It's easier for a researcher to just see how suspensions correlate with race. The data is easily available. The researcher gets an easy publication. The journal article gets media coverage. Hurrah! The study is useless for society, or even counter-productive, but it's a win for the researcher.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Or perhaps even, what is the race of the teacher/disciplinarian who referred the student to the principal? What is the race of the principal? What is the race of the school board? Is it possible that predominantly black-run school districts suspend students of color more often than Asians and other honorary whites? Isn't there some way we can still blame black educator discipline on white people outside of the ivy leagues?

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    2. The report discusses the impact of zero tolerance school policies. It suggests that a different approach to discipline is needed to disrupt the school-to-prison pipeline. They suggest that kids who are suspended or expelled in school go on to other negative outcomes.

      Delete
    3. What is the result of having exceptionally tolerant school discipline policies? Is there a model to follow where persistently disruptive students are allowed to remain in class, and violent students are allowed to victimize teachers and classmates numerous times before receiving a suspension? What are the outcomes for the classmates of violent and disruptive classmates who are encouraged to remain in a classroom environment?

      Delete
    4. As long as all outcomes are equalized by race, concerns about the safety and educational environment of our children are simply not that important.

      Delete
    5. @ 5:01 What is the result of exceptionally stupid blog commentary?

      Delete
  12. Wow! You can't go a single day without taking a shot at Rachel Maddow. What happened? Did you hit on her once and she turned you down?

    ReplyDelete
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  16. My Wife divorce me for no reason, Thanks to Dr Brave for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again, My name is James Mack. i live in Italy, I`m happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she did not love me anymore So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.(bravelovespell@gmail.com}, So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next day what an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my wife who did not call me for the past seven {7}months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster . So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same web site: http://bravesp.blogspot.co.uk/,if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. So thanks to Dr Brave for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again. { bravelovespell@gmail.com }, Thanks you Dr Brave, i will always be testifying about your good work.and for any questions call me {James Mack} on +393279282206.This spell is a 100% Guarantee for your situation.

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  17. My husband cheated on me for Almost three years. he ignore me for several months and left me with nothing, but i am happy today that Chief Nwaluta brought my husband back, I am so happy, Now my husband is all mine again. I can now say I'm happy again. Great spell from Chief Nwaluta, Chief Nwaluta is genuine. I truly believe in him and his spells. he is a professional. , My name is Sandra Gault and I live in Bryan Texas, My husband and i got married for more than 11 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do,i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster, i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted Chief Nwaluta for the return of my husband to me, they told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then they told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, they casted the spell and after 1 week my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still love me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that he Chief Nwaluta casted on him that make him come back to me today,me and my family are now happy again today. thank you Chief Nwaluta for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend and girlfriend to contact Chief Nwaluta,if you need his help you can contact him through his private E-mail:{ Nwalutaspelltemple@gmail.com } or you can contact him through his Web site :http://nwalutaspelltemple.blogspot.com. Thanks you Chief Nwaluta.

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  18. I never think that this was going to work fast like this. I want to thank the great spell caster that was able to bring back my lover within the period of 48 hours, This is no other person than Dr jarto whose email is Dr.jartospellcaster@gmail.com

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  19. Hello to everyone here, I'm here to share the unexpected miracles that happened to me three days ago how i was help by dr clement, My Name is sanjeeta I live in United State, and I `m happily married to a lovely and caring husband, two children, a very big problem has occurred in the family seven months ago, between me and my husband so terrible that they took the case to court for divorce, he said that he never again to stay with me, and urging me not as he made the house and grabbed me and my children are passed through a lot of pain. I have tried all my possible means to get him back, after much begging, but all to no avail, and he confirmed that he made ??his decision, and he never wanted me to see her again. So one evening when I returned from work, I met an old friend of mine who asked my husband So I explained everything to her,so she told me that the only way I can get my husband back it is, visit a spell caster, because it really worked for them too so I never believed in spell, but I had no choice but to follow their advice. Then they gave me the email address of the caster, they.drodeckuspellhome@gmail.com, so the next morning I sent an email to the address they gave me, and the spell caster assured me that I get my husband back the next day, what an astonishing statement, I have never believed, so that he spoke to me and told me everything I need to do. then the next morning, so suddenly, that my husband, who has not called me for the past {7} seven months, gave m
    Read more: http://www.drodeckuspellhome@gmail.com/greenliving/

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  20. Hello every body my name is Synder Anderson I just want to share my experience with the world on how Lord Alika help me, I got my love back and saved my marriage… I was married for 3 years with 1 kid and we lived happily until things started getting ugly and we had fights and argued almost e very time… it got worse at a point that he filed for divorce I tried my best to make him change his mind & stay with me because I love him so much and don’t want to lose him but everything just didn’t work out… he moved out of the house because it was a rented apartment and still went ahead to file for divorce… I pleaded and tried everything but still nothing worked. The breakthrough came when someone introduced me to this wonderful, great spell caster who eventually helped me out… I have never been a fan of things like this but just decided to try reluctantly because I was desperate and left with no choice… He did special prayers and used his power… Within 4 days my husband called me and he said he was sorry for all the emotional pains he had cost me, moved back to the house and we continue to live happily and our kid is happy too and we are expecting our second child… and my Husband also got a new job and our lives became much better web:http://lordalikaspelltemp8.wix.com/http I have introduced him to a lot of couples with problems across the world and they have had good news..contact him on lordalikaspelltemple@yahoo.co.uk or +13217666393. web:http://lordalikaspelltemp8.wix.com/http

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