FLUNKING THE SATs: Please repeat after us!

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 2015

Part 3—Your important new mantra:
Are 17-year-old American students doing less well in math?

Having asked that, let’s also ask this:

Are 17-year-old Americans doing less well in math?

As some readers will already know, those are different questions. That said, let’s make a basic point:

The SAT is not designed to answer either question!

The SATs are not designed for that purpose! We’re going to offer that today as an important new mantra—a mantra you should repeat, in slavish fashion, if you want to understand one of the most ubiquitous cons in which your “press corps” engages.

“The SATs are not designed for that purpose! The SATs are not designed for that purpose!”

We’ll suggest you repeat it again and again, unless you enjoy being misled by the type of elite establishment script the Washington Post published last week.

Nick Anderson is an experienced education reporter. Basically, he was working a very familiar con in his lengthy, front-page news report in last Thursday’s Post.

The new SAT scores had been released—and no one could explain the small drop in average scores! At least, that’s the impression Anderson gave, conning you as he did.

This is the way the music man started. Are you reciting your mantra as you review his misleading work?
ANDERSON (9/3/15): Scores on the SAT have sunk to the lowest level since the college admission test was overhauled in 2005, adding to worries about student performance in the nation’s high schools.

The average score for the Class of 2015 was 1490 out of a maximum 2400, the College Board reported Thursday. That was down 7 points from the previous class’s mark and was the lowest composite score of the past decade. There were declines of at least 2 points on all three sections of the test—critical reading, math and writing.

The steady decline in SAT scores and generally stagnant results from high schools on federal tests and other measures reflect a troubling shortcoming of education-reform efforts. The test results show that gains in reading and math in elementary grades haven’t led to broad improvement in high schools, experts say. That means several hundred thousand teenagers, especially those who grew up poor, are leaving school every year unready for college.

“Why is education reform hitting a wall in high school?” asked Michael J. Petrilli, president of the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, a think tank. “You see this in all kinds of evidence. Kids don’t make a whole lot of gains once they’re in high school. It certainly should raise an alarm.”

It is difficult to pinpoint a reason for the decline in SAT scores, but educators cite a host of enduring challenges in the quest to lift high school achievement. Among them are poverty, language barriers, low levels of parental education and social ills that plague many urban neighborhoods.
Before our series is finished, we’ll review some horrible recent work by the awful Petrilli. For the record, he’s president of the Fordham Institute, a conservative think tank—but then, who's keeping score?

Whatever! By the start of paragraph 5, Anderson had basically thrown up his hands concerning the reasons for “the steady decline in [average] SAT scores.” Unless it’s a lack of “reform” in our high schools, he just couldn’t think of a way to explain that steady decline!

“It is difficult to pinpoint a reason for the decline in SAT scores,” Anderson wrote, making a statement which is technically accurate but grossly misleading. Before we provide the background to your new mantra, let’s improve on Anderson’s statement, which was in essence a familiar establishment con.

Is it “difficult to pinpoint a reason for the decline in [average] SAT scores?” Actually, it’s impossible! In part, that’s because there is no single “reason” for the decline in those average scores. But it’s also impossible to “pinpoint a reason” because of this basic point:

The SATs are not designed for that purpose! The SATs are not designed for that purpose! The SATs are not designed for that purpose!

Let’s explain what we mean by that blindingly obvious statement, which you should keep repeating.

Basically, there are two ways to conduct educational tests if you want to be able to make sensible year-to-year comparisons. You can test all the kids in the population under review. Or you can test a “scientifically selected,” representative sample of all those students or children.

Each technique is in wide use. The SATs employ neither.

Universal testing: You can test all the kids in a given population. This is what the fifty states attempt to do in the annual statewide tests which were mandated by No Child Left Behind.

To cite one example, the state of Maryland attempted to test all its fourth graders in the spring of 2014. One year later, it attempted to test all its fourth graders in the spring of 2015.

No state ever manages to test all its students, but the percentages tested run very high. This permits certain types of reasonable year-to-year comparisons.

Representative samples: Other programs test “representative samples” of the populations in question. That includes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the so-called “gold standard” of domestic testing.

Every few years, the NAEP tests the nation’s fourth- and eighth-graders. But it doesn’t try to test all such kids. Instead, it tests carefully selected samples of same.

It’s much like election polling. The samples are selected to provide representative numbers of kids by race, ethnicity, family income and geographic region. Whether in election polling or educational testing, no sample can perfectly represent the full population from which it is drawn. But carefully drawn representative samples can also provide for sensible comparisons from one year to the next.

In running the SATs, the College Board doesn’t engage in either practice! The SATs don’t test all the nation’s high school seniors. Nor do the SATs attempt to test a representative sample of same.

The College Board simply gives its tests to any student who signs up and takes them! There’s nothing wrong with that practice, of course, until we start over-interpreting the results of such testing. But every year, the demographic blend of the tested students has been changing, in ways which can be fairly substantial. These means that the SAT program isn’t designed to produce meaningful year-to-year comparisons.

Presumably, Anderson understands this. As he continued his front-page news report, he quoted a College Board official and offered some sensible warnings about overinterpretation.

But alas! Wouldn’t you know it? He left one warning out:
ANDERSON: Schmeiser cautioned against “overinterpreting small fluctuations” in average scores from year to year.

Caveats abound when SAT scores are released. The students who take it are in most cases a self-selected sample,
motivated to endure a grueling exercise of 3 hours and 45 minutes on a Saturday. (The test is offered during school days in all public high schools in the District of Columbia and a handful of states.)

Some students take the SAT two or three times. Scores also track closely with family income, rising with affluence, so annual variations in who takes it can swing the results. That makes comparisons of scores among schools, school districts or states problematic. The lower the participation, generally, the higher the scores.
The SAT doesn’t test a representative sample of high school seniors. According to Anderson, “that makes comparisons of scores among schools, school districts or states problematic.”

That statement is perfectly accurate. But the lack of representative samples also makes year-to-year comparisons of SAT scores “problematic,” as Schmeiser may have said.

But so what? Starting right in paragraph one, Anderson built his entire front-page report around just such a comparison! Needless to say, it led to a standard conclusion about the need for “reform.”

Is it “difficult to pinpoint a reason for the decline in [average] SAT scores?” Actually, no—it’s impossible! It’s impossible to pinpoint the reasons for the decline in overall average scores—or for the rise in many scores on both the SAT and the ACT once you “disaggregate” scores, once you break the scores down by demographic groups.

Alas! Due to our brutal racial history—due to ongoing social policy—white kids and Asian-American kids score much higher on the SATs, on average, than black and Hispanic kids do. And duh! If the lower-scoring groups constitute a higher percentage of students tested as the years go by, this will tend to lower the average scores!

Anderson understands that, of course. Everyone understands that! But it seems he didn’t want to explain it—and this unhelpful, brain-dead reluctance is quite widespread in our “mainstream press corps.”

Tomorrow, we’ll look at where it can lead when big newspapers play us this way. In the meantime, remember two basic points:

At the Washington Post, all roads lead to decline in our public schools, probably due to the lack of “reform.” By rule of Hard Pundit Law, this official establishment narrative must always be repeated, no matter how large a con you must pull to reach that desired conclusion.

Please remember that basic point! As we’ve shown you through the years, that narrative rules all mainstream coverage of educational testing, international and domestic.

Results of educational testing must always lead to that conclusion! Something has to be terribly wrong in our schools, presumably due to our ratty teachers and the lack of “reform!”

Please remember that basic point, which controls all coverage of testing. But while you’re at it, please remember your new mantra too:

The SATs are not designed for that purpose! The SATs are not designed for that purpose!

Presumably, Anderson understands that. Perhaps it was his corporate editor who made him take it out!

Tomorrow: Onward and downward to the horrors at Slate. Beyond that, what did the AP write? What occurred at the Times?

59 comments:

  1. "For the record, he’s president of the Fordham Institute, a conservative think tank—but then, who's keeping score?

    Yes, Bob. He's an other. Thanks for italicizing the word I highlighted. Because nobody is keeping score.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Frankly, I think the italicized comment betrays something completely different than that, if I may say, trollish spin.

      Of course, some (trolls) are often pretending to keep score. "Somerby only attacks supposed liberals because he's really a supporter of the GOP" is a timeless nugget, an essential meme in what passes for the troll arsenal.

      I think the italicized comment betrays that Somerby, contrary to the general supposition in comments here, actually does occasionally read his commenters.

      On the merits, this post is hitting pretty successfully on one of Somerby's general theses: Mainstream press reporting is tailored to adhere to standard narrative on certain topics, facts be damned.

      The press's primary troll defender here on this topic is KZ, who will soon be by with a lengthy comment -- one which will not however dent the thesis a bit.

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  2. SATs are a limited measure of national achievement.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. SATs are a product of testing corporations designed to help college admissions officers select students. That's all they are. They do not measure "national achievement" or even student achievement. They are supposed to assess likelihood of success in college level study.

      Delete
    2. SAT's are a limited measure of national achievement.

      As the Times reported just yesterday, national SAT scores hit an all-time high in math last year, and the verbal score has risen four points in the past decade. The claim..(of a crisis in our schools).. is hard to square with those numbers.

      Delete
    3. SAT's are NOT a measure of national achievement.

      Delete
    4. "SAT's are a limited measure of national achievement"

      Bob Somerby
      Chanting a Different Mantra When Scores Were on the Rise

      9/1/2005

      Delete
    5. SAT's are not a measure of national achievement.

      This comment is not being written by Bob Somerby.


      Delete
    6. Comparing yourself to Bob Somerby is like comparing nuts to fruitcake.

      Delete
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  3. And Bob doubles down on the brutal-racist-White-people's-history-benefits-Asians canard. And people don't think he reads the comments?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Who doesn't believe Somerby reads comments?

      Delete
  4. Explaining academic performance in terms of history is both illusory and useless. It's illusory because we don't know enough to do it correctly. E.g., here are a couple of questions that cannot be answered with confidence:

    1. Why did brutal bigotry lead (on average) to poor performance by blacks, but outstandingly good performance by Asians, Mormons, and Jews?

    2. In the 1950's, black families were mostly intact. Crime in black neighborhoods was low. What caused the subsequent breakdowns? Was it a very delayed reaction to Jim Crow? A very, very delayed reaction to slavery?

    Explaining current culture in terms of history doesn't lead to solutions, because we can't change history. IMHO it's much better to look at the current situation. E.g., figure out what it is about the current cultures of Asians, Jews and Mormons that leads to success. Now, adopt policies likely to promote that sort of culture among under-represented minorities.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Is the sky blue where you come from?

      Delete
    2. Cultural differences account for the poor performance of blacks relative to whites, Asians, Jews and other groups whose cultures do not include a 75% illegitimacy rate.

      Delete
    3. The answer to question 2 is a combination of leftist grievance politics and leftist rejection of family values.

      Delete
    4. @ 5:35 - stormer rubbish.

      @ 5:37 - wingnut rubbish.

      Delete
    5. David, people have answered your same questions repeatedly here before. Is it too much to ask that you read the responses people write to your questions?

      Delete
    6. 5:49 ignorant progressive ad hominem denial.

      Delete
  5. "At the Washington Post, all roads lead to decline in our public schools...."

    Show me a sentence from Anserson's article which mentions decline in our public schools.

    "Something has to be terribly wrong in our schools, presumably due to our ratty teachers and the lack of “reform!”

    Show me a sentence from Anderson's article which mentions teachers.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sentences referring to the decline in our public schools:

      "adding to worries about student performance in the nation’s high schools."

      "The steady decline in SAT scores and generally stagnant results from high schools on federal tests and other measures reflect a troubling shortcoming of education-reform efforts. The test results show that gains in reading and math in elementary grades haven’t led to broad improvement in high schools, experts say. That means several hundred thousand teenagers, especially those who grew up poor, are leaving school every year unready for college.

      “Why is education reform hitting a wall in high school?” asked Michael J. Petrilli, president of the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, a think tank. “You see this in all kinds of evidence. Kids don’t make a whole lot of gains once they’re in high school. It certainly should raise an alarm.”"

      For the link to teachers you have to connect the dots. Teachers and their unions have been opposing reform, thus it is the teachers fault if reform hasn't produced gains.

      Note that it is educators who cite a bunch of causes, but the article says it is difficult to pinpoint the cause (implying the causes cited by the educators may be incorrect):

      "It is difficult to pinpoint a reason for the decline in SAT scores, but educators cite a host of enduring challenges in the quest to lift high school achievement. Among them are poverty, language barriers, low levels of parental education and social ills that plague many urban neighborhoods."

      Do you not understand that "educators" refers to "teachers"?

      Delete
    2. Noting a failure at the high school level to replicate gains made at lower grade levels does not indicate a "decline."

      Listing challenges cited by educators does not constitute calling teachers "ratty."

      But I forget. In Howlerville you don't deal with facts. You deal with presumptions about things which aren't said but seem to be said.

      Delete
    3. The article itself uses the word "decline". You don't have to call teachers "ratty" to blame them. And yes, I realize that trolls don't do inference. That problem would cost you major points on the SAT.

      Delete
    4. 8:09 has a point. The article should have used the word "different" to refer to lower test scores instead of "decline" to avoid frightening people like you and Somerby....people with the creative skills to do "inference" and turn an adjective applied to one test result to and indictment of the whole public school system.

      Delete
  6. The SAT doesn’t test a representative sample of high school seniors.

    No. But the NAEP does. It tests a random sample of 17 year olds as well. Anderson alludes to those test results, noting also that those tests are given to students at younger grades.

    I think Bob included what he wrote but didn't choose to highlight it.

    Lets fix that for you.

    "The steady decline in SAT scores and generally stagnant results from high schools on federal tests and other measures reflect a troubling shortcoming of education-reform efforts. The test results show that gains in reading and math in elementary grades haven’t led to broad improvement in high schools, experts say

    Lord have mercy. Did Anderson dare mention higher scores at the elementary level? How dare he violate Hard Pundit Law. Gosh, did he mention "troubling shortcoming" rather than "need for" when describing "reform".

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If you understand the argument about the selection bias present in the SAT, you should also understand that when you consider 17 year olds, there is a bias in the scores because of changes in the drop out rate across comparison periods.

      Further, by the time you are dealing with 17 year olds, the causes of lower performance are more complex than they are with 4th and 8th graders. 17 year olds understand that they are being tested, have attitudes about tests, have a self-image and expectations about their own performance (or lack), thus have a more complex motivation when taking tests than 4th graders, who are pretty clueless about the purpose of any test. Then there is the cumulative impact of years of schooling -- why would you expect gains in scores on material kids are in the process of learning to be the same as gains in scores on material kids may have failed to learn years earlier and been slipping further behind since then? A child who is not performing at grade level in 4th grade, may be 2 or 3 years behind. A child who is not performing at grade level in 11th grade may be anywhere from 1 to 10 years behind. How might that affect average scores for 17 year olds compared to those of 4th graders?

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    2. Your litany of excuses for test results of high school students is as lame as the excuses given for the wage gap between men and women. As well they should be. Your follow the master her in Bobworld.

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    3. Calling something lame isn't actually any kind of criticism. It is just namecalling.

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    4. Your litany of excuses had nothing to do with the comment to which you were responding.

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    5. You don't know what you're talking about.

      Delete
    6. Proper uses of "lame."

      "How does work so weak and so lame come from such exalted sources?"

      "But Gregory’s subsequent questions were lame, and Lewis’ answers to his questions were a bit non-responsive."

      Delete
  7. To answer Bob Somerby's opening question, no. Not significantly.

    The kiddos are down a couple of points from their high score on the Gold Standard Test since the all time high in 1999, but there has been no statistically significant change for better or worse since 1990.

    Now the fifteen year olds are a bit of a different different story, but we'll have to go to the PISA test for that and you all know what a mess that can be what with all those Asian Tigers prowling about plus the Fantastic Finns and Miracle Poles.

    ReplyDelete
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    1. Comparing PISA with NAEP is comparing apples to oranges. NAEP is not an international test, it doesn't test for the same abilities or material, it doesn't include the same kinds of kids (sample in the same way). But you are just trolling by stringing together words in a meaningless way and it doesn't matter to you what you say, as long as it sounds critical of Somerby.

      You don't know what statistically significant means. With the large numbers of kids included in these samples, even very small differences can be statistically significant, even if the difference is meaningless. No one with a grasp of statistics would use the words "statistically significant" in this context. If you actually mean that the difference (change) is unimportant, say that instead. It is less embarrassing to you.

      Delete
    2. Throw in some cherries with the apples and oranges and one would have a good start on a fruitcake. Nobody compared PISA and NAEP, however.

      The statistical significance test I referred to is a measurement performed by the NAEP and PISA Data Explorer for anyone using the research tool on the data.

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    3. @7:01 did. As I said, you don't know what statistical significance is.

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    4. 8:06, if the person you attacked did not know what statistical significance was, why would he/she bother to run a statistical significance test on the data he/she selected from NAEP?

      I think it is unfortunate to say this, but if you also wrote the comment at 7:53 -"With the large numbers of kids included in these samples, even very small differences can be statistically significant, even if the difference is meaningless"- then the person who needs to study some more statistics is you.

      Delete
    5. AnonymousSeptember 11, 2015 at 9:56 AM -- Anon7:53 is exactly right. My wife and I are both professional statisticians. There's a huge amount of bad statistics done in published papers. And, even more bad statistics in media reports.

      A pet peeve we share is all the people who know how to do statistical tests, but who don't understand the assumptions. And thus, their calculations, which seem to follow the formulas, are not valid.

      The confusion between significance and statistical significance is a common fallacy. Statistical significance simply means that the sample gives a reliable picture of the entire data set. Suppose there's a tiny change from the prior year. As 7:53 pointed out, if a sample is large enough, we will have confidence that the change is not an artifact of the sampling process. But, if the change is tiny, it tells us nothing about the process we're studying.

      Lay people often think statistical significance implies policy significance. IMHO some researchers take advantage of this confusion, in order to make their work seem more important than it really is.

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    6. You are a professional statistician? I'll take your word for it. But can your read?

      You say: "As 7:53 pointed out, if a sample is large enough, we will have confidence that the change is not an artifact of the sampling process. But, if the change is tiny, it tells us nothing about the process we're studying.

      Here is what 7:53 said: "With the large numbers of kids included in these samples, even very small differences can be statistically significant, even if the difference is meaningless."

      Sorry DinC but your comment and that of 7:35 say the opposite things.

      If I had to pick sides I would bet on your reading skills being faulty here. In fairness, however, what 7:35 actually said is such gibberish it is embarrassing. But that is what makes
      statistically significant blog commentary so meaningless.

      Delete
    7. Perhaps the confusion is over use of the word "meaningless" which has no definition one can easily pinpoint.

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    8. 12:06 I think 7:53 used the word "meaningless" to mean what I called, "tells us nothing about the process we're studying." Thus the two of us agree.

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    9. Re meaningless -- a sheet of paper has a few random bumps on it. Such bumps can be read as braille and communicate information or they can just be random bumps with nothing to convey. When people try to interpret random bumps as if they were braille, the resilts can be confusing. That's what happens when people try to interpret a statistically significant result as if it were meaningful when it is just random (inflated to statistical significance by a large sample size). This danger is taught in introductory statistics courses, so failure to understand this provlem is a dead giveaway that someone doesn't know much about statistics.

      Delete

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  9. How To Get Your Lost Husband Back

    “LOVE is the key to LIFE”. That was the word from Dr Ukaka when I consulted his powerful Love Temple. I married the wrong man; I realized that after four years of our unfruitful marriage. Everything was going from Best to Worst in our life, no child, I got demoted from work after our marriage, my husband was sacked a year after. His application for new job in various offices was constantly declined even though he was qualified enough. I was made to take care of my family with the low income I earn get that wasn’t enough to pay our rent. We keep praying a seeking for help from some people, my friends laugh at me behind because I was advised not to get married yet.It was one Thursday night that my husband woke me up and told me that has thought enough about our crisis, he said that our crisis is not ordinary and it’s beyond our spiritual level. He suggested we should consult Dr Ukaka from testimonies he showed me online about how he has been helping families. I was afraid, I don’t like evil or spell but I supported him to contact him if he can help us. We consulted him via freedomlovespell@hotmail.com and he replied positively after 20munites with congratulating email that he can help us but he will need our pure heart and trusts in his work if he will cast the spell on us and purify our life. We agreed to his terms. He cast the spell and told us to expect results within 5days. I waited for three days nothing happened, so I started having doubt and blaming my husband for emailing Dr Ukaka. It was on the fifth day that my husband was called for an interview and he got a well-paying work, I was prompted to a higher position. I missed my period on the 5th day and it was confirmed that I am with a baby. Things have really changed for us for good and we now have our own house and cars. I will never forget what Dr Ukaka told us “LOVE is the key to LIFE”, this word keep me going. People that laughed at us are coming close for help and I am delighted to welcome them because my family is now blessed. Dr Ukaka is a savior and man that keep to his word even when I doubted his powers at the end of the spell. Thank you great Dr Ukaka and your Oracle for helping us via freedomlovespell@hotmail.com and I will keep spreading this message to people in need of help. also contact him for help.website address: freedomlovespelltemple.yolasite.com ;


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  10. How To Get Your Lost Husband Back

    With great joy and happiness in my heart i want to appreciate Dr. Ukaka for bring back my lost husband within 24hours after the spell was been cast by him when my husband left me for the past 4 month without living any information behind and all his contact not reachable and i'm so happy my husband is back to us since i contact him on freedomlovespell@hotmail.com for urgent help web site: freedomlovespelltemple.yolasite.com

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  11. Seorang teman baik adalah seseorang yang menginspirasimu untuk menjadi versi terbaik dari dirimu sendiri. Ingat ini: Siapa pun yang membantumu saat kamu melakukan sesuatu setengah hati, bisa mendorongmu menjadi sepenuh hati melalui kebaikannya dan kerja sama yang baik, adalah teman sejatimu.
    friv 2016
    jeux de yoob friv
    jogos de yoob
    jogos do yoob

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  12. My Wife divorce me for no reason, Thanks to Dr Brave for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again, My name is James Mack. i live in Italy, I`m happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she did not love me anymore So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.(bravelovespell@gmail.com}, So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next day what an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my wife who did not call me for the past seven {7}months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster . So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same web site: http://bravesp.blogspot.co.uk/,if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. So thanks to Dr Brave for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again. { bravelovespell@gmail.com }, Thanks you Dr Brave, i will always be testifying about your good work.and for any questions call me {James Mack} on +393279282206.This spell is a 100% Guarantee for your situation.

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  13. My Wife divorce me for no reason, Thanks to Dr Brave for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again, My name is James Mack. i live in Italy, I`m happily married to a lovely and caring wife,with two kids A very big problem occurred in my family seven months ago,between me and my wife so terrible that she took the case to court for a divorce she said that she never wanted to stay with me again,and that she did not love me anymore So she packed out of my house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get her back,after much begging,but all to no avail and she confirmed it that she has made her decision,and she never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my wife So i explained every thing to her,so she told me that the only way i can get my wife back,is to visit a spell caster,because it has really worked for her too So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow her advice. Then she gave me the email address of the spell caster whom she visited.(bravelovespell@gmail.com}, So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address she gave to me,and the spell caster assured me that i will get my wife back the next day what an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me,and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my wife who did not call me for the past seven {7}months,gave me a call to inform me that she was coming back So Amazing!! So that was how she came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and she apologized for her mistake,and for the pain she caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a spell caster . So, i will advice you out there to kindly visit the same web site: http://bravesp.blogspot.co.uk/,if you are in any condition like this,or you have any problem related to "bringing your ex back. So thanks to Dr Brave for bringing back my wife,and brought great joy to my family once again. { bravelovespell@gmail.com }, Thanks you Dr Brave, i will always be testifying about your good work.and for any questions call me {James Mack} on +393279282206.This spell is a 100% Guarantee for your situation.

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  14. My Name is Carol Williams ..I never believed in Love Spells or Magics until I met this special spell caster when i contact this man called Dr.jartospellcaster@gmail.com Execute some business..He is really powerful..My wife divorce me with no reason for almost 4 years and i tried all i could to have her back cos i really love her so much but all my effort did not work out.. we met at our early age at the college and we both have feelings for each other and we got married happily for 5 years with no kid and she woke up one morning and she told me she’s going on a divorce..i thought it was a joke and when she came back from work she tender to me a divorce letter and she packed all her loads from my house..i ran mad and i tried all i could to have her back but all did not work out..i was lonely for almost 4 years...So when i told the spell caster what happened he said he will help me and he asked for her full name and her picture..i gave him that..At first i was skeptical but i gave it a try cos have tried so many spell casters and there is no solution...so when he finished with the readings,he got back to me that she’s with a man and that man is the reason why she left me...The spell caster said he will help me with a spell that will surely bring her back.but i never believe all this...he told me i will see a positive result within 3 days..3 days later,she called me herself and came to me apologizing and she told me she will come back to me..I cant believe this,it was like a dream cos i never believe this will work out after trying many spell casters and there is no solution..The spell caster is so powerful and after that he helped me with a pregnancy spell and my wife got pregnant a month later..we are now happy been together again and with lovely kid..This spell caster has really changed my life and i will forever thankful to him..he has helped many friends too with similar problem too and they are happy and thankful to him..This man is indeed the most powerful spell caster have ever experienced in life..Am Posting this to the Forum in case there is anyone who has similar problem and still looking for a way out..you can reach him here:Dr.jartospellcaster@gmail.com... CONTACT THIS GREAT AND POWERFUL SPELL CASTER CALLED Dr.jartospellcaster@gmail.com ...HIS EMAIL ADDRESS IS :dr.jartospellcaster@gmail.com..CONTACT HIM NOW AND BE FAST ABOUT IT SO HE CAN ALSO ATTEND TO YOU BECAUSE THE EARLIER YOU CONTACT HIM NOW THE BETTER FOR YOU TO GET QUICK SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS.

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  15. This is a great testimony that everyone need to read. I am Jerry from USA,i hear how people are talking about This powerful spell caster called DR AKERECO in regard of how he bring back ex lover,winning lottery,getting pregnant and getting married to their dream true lover and i also contact him with his email, drakerecospellcaster@gmail.com His Facebook page name(Salaam Shafi) to help me cast a spell in regard of my ex lover whom i love so much that left me 2yrs ago,but today my ex is back to me and we are happily married with 2kids and i am so much happy for the help i found in you DR AKERECO. I and my family are very much happy and we are living large now,i am grateful and appreciate your good work of spell casting,thank you and may you leave long to help people in problems His ligit website http://drakerecospellcaster.webs.com Again his email drakerecospellcaster@gmail.com

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  16. This is a great testimony that everyone need to read. I am Jerry from USA,i hear how people are talking about This powerful spell caster called DR AKERECO in regard of how he bring back ex lover,winning lottery,getting pregnant and getting married to their dream true lover and i also contact him with his email, drakerecospellcaster@gmail.com His Facebook page name(Salaam Shafi) to help me cast a spell in regard of my ex lover whom i love so much that left me 2yrs ago,but today my ex is back to me and we are happily married with 2kids and i am so much happy for the help i found in you DR AKERECO. I and my family are very much happy and we are living large now,i am grateful and appreciate your good work of spell casting,thank you and may you leave long to help people in problems His ligit website http://drakerecospellcaster.webs.com Again his email drakerecospellcaster@gmail.com

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  17. My husband cheated on me for Almost three years. he ignore me for several months and left me with nothing, but i am happy today that Chief Nwaluta brought my husband back, I am so happy, Now my husband is all mine again. I can now say I'm happy again. Great spell from Chief Nwaluta, Chief Nwaluta is genuine. I truly believe in him and his spells. he is a professional. , My name is Sandra Gault and I live in Bryan Texas, My husband and i got married for more than 11 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do,i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster, i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted Chief Nwaluta for the return of my husband to me, they told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then they told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, they casted the spell and after 1 week my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still love me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that he Chief Nwaluta casted on him that make him come back to me today,me and my family are now happy again today. thank you Chief Nwaluta for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend and girlfriend to contact Chief Nwaluta,if you need his help you can contact him through his private E-mail:{ Nwalutaspelltemple@gmail.com } or you can contact him through his Web site :http://nwalutaspelltemple.blogspot.com. Thanks you Chief Nwaluta.

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  18. Hello to everyone here, I'm here to share the unexpected miracles that happened to me three days ago how i was help by dr clement, My Name is sanjeeta I live in United State, and I `m happily married to a lovely and caring husband, two children, a very big problem has occurred in the family seven months ago, between me and my husband so terrible that they took the case to court for divorce, he said that he never again to stay with me, and urging me not as he made the house and grabbed me and my children are passed through a lot of pain. I have tried all my possible means to get him back, after much begging, but all to no avail, and he confirmed that he made ??his decision, and he never wanted me to see her again. So one evening when I returned from work, I met an old friend of mine who asked my husband So I explained everything to her,so she told me that the only way I can get my husband back it is, visit a spell caster, because it really worked for them too so I never believed in spell, but I had no choice but to follow their advice. Then they gave me the email address of the caster, they.drodeckuspellhome@gmail.com, so the next morning I sent an email to the address they gave me, and the spell caster assured me that I get my husband back the next day, what an astonishing statement, I have never believed, so that he spoke to me and told me everything I need to do. then the next morning, so suddenly, that my husband, who has not called me for the past {7} seven months, gave m
    Read more: http://www.drodeckuspellhome@gmail.com/greenliving/

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  19. This is a great testimony that everyone need to read. I am Jerry from USA,i hear how people are talking about This powerful spell caster called DR AKERECO in regard of how he bring back ex lover,winning lottery,getting pregnant and getting married to their dream true lover and i also contact him with his email, drakerecospellcaster@gmail.com His Facebook page name(Salaam Shafi) to help me cast a spell in regard of my ex lover whom i love so much that left me 2yrs ago,but today my ex is back to me and we are happily married with 2kids and i am so much happy for the help i found in you DR AKERECO. I and my family are very much happy and we are living large now,i am grateful and appreciate your good work of spell casting,thank you and may you leave long to help people in problems His ligit website http://drakerecospellcaster.webs.com Again his email drakerecospellcaster@gmail.com

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  20. I lost my 2 years relationship 4 months ago. My Husband left me with so many pains and since then I have been heart broken and shattered. I have emailed so many sites online looking for a good spell caster till i was directed by one Mrs Wendy Dustin from a forum to email this email address: BLESSEDSPELLHOME@HOTMAIL.COM At first I never believed him, it took him some time to convince me and something occurred to me and I said let me give him a trial. I was very shocked when my Husband called me 5 days after DR DAN were done with the spell casting . My Husband was crawling on his knees for what he has done wrong and i am very happy that we are together today because now he love and care for me and my kids like never before..I will advise you to contact DR DAN because he has done wonders in my life and i believe he can help you out. email: BLESSEDSPELLHOME@HOTMAIL.COM or his website: http://blessedspellhome.wix.com/dr-dan or call him +1 (310) 751-7818

    I lost my 2 years relationship 4 months ago. My Husband left me with so many pains and since then I have been heart broken and shattered. I have emailed so many sites online looking for a good spell caster till i was directed by one Mrs Wendy Dustin from a forum to email this email address: BLESSEDSPELLHOME@HOTMAIL.COM At first I never believed him, it took him some time to convince me and something occurred to me and I said let me give him a trial. I was very shocked when my Husband called me 5 days after DR DAN were done with the spell casting . My Husband was crawling on his knees for what he has done wrong and i am very happy that we are together today because now he love and care for me and my kids like never before..I will advise you to contact DR DAN because he has done wonders in my life and i believe he can help you out. email: BLESSEDSPELLHOME@HOTMAIL.COM or his website: http://blessedspellhome.wix.com/dr-dan or call him +1 (310) 751-7818

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  21. Good day ladies and Gentle men, Do you know that there is a great Herbal doctor who can cure any disease? Like Cancer, HIV, HPV, syphilis, diabetes, herpes, anthrax, madness, low sperm count, pregnancy And also bring back your Lover E.t.c. I want to give thanks and honor to this great man who deserve it, i never taught i could be happy in life again cause my Husband left me 2 years ago because i was unable to get pregnant for him after 5 years of marriage, but wen i contact him via owanspelltemple@gmail.com the great DR. Owan brought back my happiness within 24 hours by helping me bring back my Husband and also cast a pregnancy spell for me that help me get pregnant to my first child ever in life. DR. Owan did a thing of surprise in my life within 24 hours by bringing back my love, my husband my sweet heart. I think am the most happiest woman on earth which DR. Owan made me to be, All thanks and appreciations to DR. Owan for putting a smile on my face, my friends out there who need help no need to contacting people which are scams just go straight and contact DR. Owan, cause he is tested and and trusted, If you want to contact him you can contact him via owanspelltemple@gmail.com.Dr tank you..

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  22. ZIKA DISEASE

    God bless Dr.UKO for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of ZIKA DISEASES since 2014 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the ZIKA out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for ZIKA DISEASES i saw a comment about Dr.UKO, how he cured ZIKA DISEASES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 7 days later i was cured from ZIKA DISEASES, Dr. UKO truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through ukospelltemple@yahoo.com whatsapp him on

    +2347064650019

    DOCTOR UKO CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. AMOEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
    6. ANTHRAX
    7. PLAGUE
    8. EBOLA
    9. BRING OF EX LOVER BACK TO LOVE YOU AGAIN

    ukospelltemple@yahoo.com / Website: ukospelltemple.wixsite.com/mysite

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