BREAKING: Arne Duncan on "learning standards!"

THURSDAY, APRIL 19, 2018

What's the matter with standards:
Doggone it! The Naep Data Explorer is down. That means we can't gather data for the report we'd planned to offer today.

No sense in letting the day go to waste! Let's review what Arne Duncan recently said about higher "learning standards."

On April 2, Duncan published a shocking op-ed column in the Washington Post. Amazingly, he noted the fact that American kids have shown large score gains in reading and math over the past forty-plus years.

Why was Duncan's column shocking? Rather plainly, there has been some sort of long-running agreement in which elites agreed that we the people mustn't be told such things.

To all intents and purposes, major newspapers like the Post and the Times have never reported the basic facts about these large score gains. Instead, they have promulgated propaganda favored by "education reformers," according to which nothing has worked, and nothing is working, in our public schools.

Our public schools could be better, of course. That said, our major newspapers could be much better—though in fairness, promulgation of elite propaganda of this type is their one great skill.

At any rate, there was Duncan on April 2, suddenly breaking the news—"today's kids perform as much as 2 1/2 grades higher than their counterparts from [1971]." Luckily, no one reads op-ed columns by people like Duncan. Otherwise, citizens might have died of shock all across the land.

Why did Duncan wrote this column? We've already offered our best guess. Today, let's consider something else he said.

These score gains didn't happen by accident, Duncan said. He said the score gains have been achieved because of—what else?—education reform!

As we'll recall below, a fair amount of what Duncan wrote didn't make sense on a simple chronological basis. But for the record, here's part of what he said:
DUNCAN (4/2/18): None of our progress happened because we stood still. It happened because we confronted hard truths, raised the bar and tried new things. Beginning in 2002, federal law required annual assessments tied to transparency. The law forced educators to acknowledge achievement gaps, even if they didn't always have the courage or capacity to address them.

A decade ago, learning standards were all over the place. Today, almost every state has raised standards. The percentage of high school students taking college-level classes has tripled since 1990.
According to Duncan, the score gains happened because "we raised the bar."

Not long ago, something called "learning standards" were "all over the place," Duncan wrote. By now, he said, "almost every state has raised standards."

How about it! Did those score gains occur because almost every state "has raised standards?" Please! In his column, Duncan tracked the score gains to 1971. He also said the "higher standards" started ten years ago.

So it goes when you read the work of major liberal "intellectual leaders." That said, what does Duncan mean by the term "learning standards," and how have they supposedly been improved?

By "learning standards," he simply means the various learnings and skills a student is supposed to master by the end of some specific grade. When he says that learning standards "were all over the place" ten years ago, he means that the various states had a wide array of such curricular "standards"—that these grade-by-grade curricular standards were different for every state.

That's what he means when he says that standards were "all over the place." When he says that every state "has raised standards" in the past decade, he means that kids are now expected to master more challenging material by the end of the different grades than was the case in the past.

Already, you've noticed another non sequitur! If learning standards were all over the place; and if every state proceeded to raise its learning standards; then why wouldn't learning standards still be "all over the place," except at a higher level?

You're asking a very good question! Again, you see the kind of service we get from our "intellectual leaders."

That said, it always sounds good to say that every state has "raised its learning standards." What could possibly be wrong with having "higher standards?" The question seems to answer itself!

In fact, there may be plenty wrong with having higher / tougher / more challenging standards. It all depends on who the student is.

Beyond that, it isn't clear that it makes sense to have grade-by-grade "learning standards" at all. In fact, we'd say it rather plainly doesn't make sense.

Tomorrow, if the Naep Date Explorer is up, we'll explain what we mean. Through the use of some horrific data, we'll show you why it doesn't make sense to have grade-by-grade "learning standards" at all.

Duncan reported some highly important basic facts—basic facts which have always been kept from public view. Since no one actually cares about any of this, you've seen his information mentioned nowhere else in the seventeen days since his column appeared.

Beyond that, Duncan made some incoherent remarks about those "learning standards." His statements sounded extremely good.

In fact, his statements made very little sense. Obama! Thanks a lot!

Tomorrow: Strong logic, horrific data

36 comments:

  1. Your blog is read by very few people, Bob. Yesterday, you said yourself that blogs, op-eds, letters to the editor, don't matter or have no effect. That sounds like an excuse for not doing more or trying something different. Perhaps you could write an op-ed and submit it to the Post or Times. Surely someone there knows about you or your blog.. it had something of a name in the early days. You used to appear on tv occasionally. The editors of those newspapers could check out your work to see the long history of blogging. Hell, Paul Krugman mentioned you once or twice approvingly, years ago. So did Bill Moyers. And Gene Lyons. Perhaps that would be an "in." An op-ed would certainly reach a hell of a lot more people than this blog.

    But, in an op-Ed, you might want to refrain from your usual caricatures and attacks and putdowns. That doesn't tend to go over well with a general audience. People tend to remember the snark and not the positive points , if any, that you are trying to make.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bob Somerby spent years trying to make an impact on newspaper reporting by contacting editors, submitting columns, and writing pieces for letters to the editor pages to little avail. Of course, back then Somerby did not have the benefit of your advice. With your insights available to him now, maybe Somerby should return to those tasks.

      [QUOTE] More to come: Here at THE HOWLER, the analysts never tire of hearing about our own days in the classroom, teaching fifth graders in the Baltimore City Schools from 1969 through 1982. And they beg us to read them our old Baltimore Sun pieces about urban curriculum problems—and testing misconduct.

      Watching [Mike] Wallace's [09/19/1999] report on 60 Minutes this week, we finally realized that public school issues will be widely covered in the next year. Therefore, construction now is underway on a brand new wing of DAILY HOWLER World Headquarters, which will be devoted to study of public education reporting. For future reports from this state-of-the-art complex, please keep an eye on this space. [END QUOTE]
      LINK


      Those High Test Scores May Not Be What They Seem: A hard look at Baltimore school test results

      Robert Somerby, The Baltimore Evening Sun, 2/5/81
      LINK

      Delete
    2. Somerby had something to say about cheating on standardized tests. He didn't have anything to say about educating black children. He is a one-trick pony.

      Delete
    3. You've been through the microfiche, 11:44 PM? How about some links to the crusade you've been waging.

      Delete
    4. Try this one: http://dailyhowler.com/

      I have never seen Somerby say anything meaningful about curriculum or teaching methods or school organization or classroom management or anything else relevant to teaching, except for the time he posted about the number of words middle class kids hear in comparison to poor kids. I suspect he was not very interested in pedagogy when he was a teacher himself, much as he may have cared about the kids. Teaching is an art, yes, but it is also a science with teachable skills, best practices, and a body of knowledge about how to do it well. Somerby never engages with that.

      For those interested, I highly recommend the movie "Chalk."

      Delete
    5. The Daily Howler 01/05/2006 LINK:

      [QUOTE]...Is money the root of all solutions? In yesterday’s Times, Alan Finder reported on a new proposal from a new advocacy group, First Class Education. The group wants “to compel school districts to spend at least 65 percent of their operating budgets on classroom instruction” Finder wrote....

      Suppose you were teaching in a low-achieving, low-income grade school—the kind of school where kids may be several years below grade level in reading by the fourth or fifth grade. And suppose that someone gave you a big chunk of money that you could spend in your classroom. In theory, these are the schools which need the most help—the schools which produce the lowest levels of literacy.

      You’d think that this money would be a big help. But as we asked yesterday: Why might that money be hard to spend well? Why can it be hard to help the delightful kids who struggle in our low-income schools?

      We taught fifth grade in Baltimore’s schools. During that time (1969-1982), we spent large chunks of our own money, putting resources into the classroom which otherwise wouldn’t have been there. But it can be hard to supply classrooms for low-achieving kids. Finder’s piece doesn’t mention this fact. We’ll speculate why as we finish.

      Why is it hard to supply these classrooms? Because it can be hard to find appropriate reading materials for kids who are several years below grade level.

      Back in those days, we spent our own money buying “high-interest, low-readability” books; these books discuss topics appropriate for eleven- or twelve-year-olds, but do so at a reading level that a struggling reader can understand. We would buy these books five or six at a time, so that struggling children could sit and read them to each other (as middle-class kids do at earlier ages).

      For example, we bought copies of a readable bio of Frederick Douglass, one of our greatest Americans (and Baltimoreans). (Careful! Put clear contact paper on the covers of these books, so they will withstand constant use!) We can still see our fifth- and sixth-graders reading this book in small groups to each other.

      The book was greatly interesting to them (more tomorrow)—but it was written at second- or third-grade level, the level at which they were actually functioning.

      It was exactly what these kids needed. It gave them the chance to have the kind of reading experience their middle-class peers got almost from birth—the kind of experience which low-income kids can go through years of school without getting.

      But in those days, it was hard to find such appropriate books, because they weren’t being widely published. And it was impossible to find readable textbooks for Baltimore’s social studies or science curriculum; there were no textbooks which were designed to teach that curriculum to below-level readers.

      Indeed, if someone had given us a big chunk of change to spend on resources for our classroom, we would have found it hard or impossible to buy the things we most desperately needed.

      Appropriate textbooks (and supplementary materials)? Appropriate books for leisure reading? These were the things we badly needed. And they were hard—or impossible—to find.

      Publishing companies weren’t churning them out—and urban systems were often working to pretend that they weren’t needed. Call it “the soft bigotry of high expectations.” In those days, urban systems loved to pretend that things were better than they actually were—at savage, obscene cost to the kids.

      continued...

      Delete
    6. ...continued from the 01/05/2006 Howler:

      Twenty-five to 30 years later, has this groaning problem been solved? This is one of the questions we plan to explore, in detail, over the course of the next year or so. For example, in Baltimore’s current low-income classrooms, are teachers able to give below-level readers a wealth of readable textbooks and supplementary materials—books these kids can read and learn from, books with which they can really be challenged, the way their middle-class peers get challenged? How about in Detroit? In Philadelphia?

      In our day, the lack of appropriate books (and instructional programs) made a daily joke of these kids’ educations and lives. Has the problem been solved today? Has it been addressed at all? We plan to ask these school systems’ leaders—and we hope to ask the teachers who go to work in these systems’ schools every day.

      We don’t mean this as a criticism of Finder; he penned a perfectly valid report about that hot new spending proposal. But when we read the Finder report, we did think that one perspective was missing....

      To our ear, the specific needs of low-income kids are typically absent from public ed discourse. Do our education writers—and our public ed “experts”—spend much time observing these children? Here’s what Jonathan Kozol says in his current book, The Shame of the Nation:

      KOZOL (page 163): >>>You have to go back to the schools themselves to find an answer to these questions. You have to sit down in the little chairs in first and second grade, or on the reading rugs with kindergarten kids, and listen to the things they actually say to one another and the dialogue between them and their teachers.

      You have to go down to the basement with the children when it’s time for lunch and to the playground with them, if they have a playground, when it’s time for recess, if they still have recess... You have to do what children do and breathe the air the children breathe. I don’t think there’s any other way to find out what the lives that children lead in school are really like.
      <<<

      And you have to read the books children read—or the books they’re handed although they can’t read them. In our experience, the lives that low-income kids lead in school are unlike the lives of their middle-class peers. But we rarely see those lives reflected in our education discourse.

      Have our experts spent enough time in those little chairs? With respect, we rarely get the sense that they have. In this new year, we’ll try to find out, once again, what the lives of these children are like—as we look for the things we can do to make their struggling schools more humane and productive.... [END QUOTE]

      Oh, and thanks for troubling yourself, 5:04 PM, to take enough of a time out from criticizing Somerby to share a movie recommendation.

      Delete
    7. "How about some links ....?"

      You've stolen them all.

      Delete
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  2. When "learning standards" are raised, scores drop.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I think what's happened the last 20 years or so is that kids have basically equalized themselves in the class and experience level. Credit cellphones and social media perhaps. They've basically gotten much more "upscale" acting.

    I think the schools too have done a good job here on values and deportment. The propriety thing.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If kids had equalized themselves there wouldn't still be gaps based on race.

      Delete
  4. If you are going to compare schools across districts and across states, you need to be sure you are not comparing apples with oranges. That means you need a consistent measurement. This idea about standards provides such a measure, a yard stick for evaluating schools.

    NCLB used to require kids to show proficiency based on national standards and tied school funding to that. Arne Duncan didn't create this idea of standards.

    ReplyDelete
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  7. Here is my favorite blog discussing the anthropology of tribes.

    I fully agree with his idea of the purpose of gossip and social media. Note Dunbar's definitions of tribes.

    This blog author goes after David Brooks the way Somerby attacks Rachel Maddow, but his ideas are fascinating and he doesn't repeat himself as much.

    But this is what it sounds like when someone who actually knows something about anthropology applies it to politics and modern society.

    http://yastreblyansky.blogspot.com/2018/04/groomin.html

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  10. BooMan has a lengthy piece today about Roger Stone and Randy Credico's ratfucking on behalf of Trump, including the involvement of Bernie supporters, among whom we can count Somerby, CMike and no doubt others here. Step up and accept responsibility, guys. You let these creeps pull the wool over your eyes.

    "For Sanders’ supporters, the stakes couldn’t have been higher. As part of the get out the vote effort “a super 36 Hour Comedy and Music marathon” was announced on the campaign website. Running from April 17th up until poll closing on the 19th, the event, held at the Commons Café in Brooklyn, featured a list of minor celebrities, stand-up comics and local musical artists. to get out the vote for Bernie Sanders in the New York April 19 primary at the Commons Cafe.

    Randy Credico organized the event at Common Café that ran from April 17th to April 19th, serving as the emcee and acting for all the world like the biggest booster of Bernie Sanders in the borough of Brooklyn. His infatuation didn’t last long.

    On May 10th, Roger Stone appeared on former Arizona congressman J.D. Hayworth’s NewsMax Prime television program and revealed that Randy Credico was starting a Sanders Supporters for Trump group.[20]

    Looking back with the benefit of hindsight, Stone was revealing something of considerable importance. Randy Credico, who had initially considered Bernie Sanders an inadequate socialist and an apologist for U.S. imperialism, was now on the Trump train. How many of the people who traipsed through the Common Café three weeks earlier suspected that the emcee would soon be working to help Trump become the president? They never suspected any such thing because they had no idea that Credico and Stone were friends with a history of ratfucking their political opponents."

    The first clue should have been when Bernie supporters started spouting the same anti-Clinton propaganda as the right.

    Now we have the same thing happening here, at this blog. How stupid are we?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "Randy Credico, who had initially considered Bernie Sanders an inadequate socialist and an apologist for U.S. imperialism, was now on the Trump train."

      I have no idea who Randy Credico is, but the judgement expressed in this quote is sound.

      I'd add that Mr Sanders was, imo, a fake candidate from the beginning. Recruited by the establishment to bolster Clinton's 'centrist' (neoliberal) credentials and to create optics of a fight for the nomination.

      For those interested in opposing globalism and imperialism, the only choice was Trump.

      Delete
    2. Let me fix that for you, Mao.

      For those interested in opposing globalism and imperialism, the only choice was the guy who wants in on TPP, Trump.

      Delete
    3. You think the Credico/Sanders nexus is the reason Clinton lost New York? You are confused 9:56 AM.

      Delete
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  15. I'm Wasna Matkaw. I'm from USA, When I eventually found testimonies about this spell caster Dr iyaryi how he helped many people to get their lovers and broken homes back, i contacted him through his email address (driayaryi2012@hotmail.com) because my boyfriend whom i really love with all my heart and also love me too, but suddenly change and turned his back on me and hated me with passion I was absolutely desperate to get my boyfriend back. Life without my boyfriend was a real mess for me and my parent I wanted a dramatic change and I thought magic could be the solution. After discussing the resolution with Dr ayaryi he gave me hope that he will restore my relationship back because he already engaged me. I felt confident that he will actually make my boyfriend to return home and he did! It’s fantastic what this great spell caster have done for me, his help is priceless! I don't know what I would have done without Dr ayaryi does his job so well he is organized and highly functional, i believe he is the best spell caster i can count on when it comes to all kinds of spell, I was floored that his spells worked, if you need help, contact him (driayaryi2012@hotmail.com) I assure you things will turn around for you.. And also Reach him on WhatsApp Number: +2349057915709 Thanks Dr. Iyaryi

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  16. best on-line help to save your marriage and relationship from breakup or divorce , he can also cure you from you illness contact dr Covenant today on or +2349057353987 add him on watsapp on +2349057353987 or contact him on his email covenantsolutiontemple@gmail.com

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  17. Good news, love spell to save your marriage/get ex bf and return lost lover back... I'm here today to say thanks to Dr.happy for the happiness he brought to my marriage
    well!! I'm Cassie Tiffany from texas, USA...I just found out about my husband cheating on me with a co-worker! We’ve been married going on two years. 2kids. lots of amazing momments together. i want to leave, but i love him so much. all i can think about is how nothing stopped him. how he has to see her everyday because they work together. we are both still young and very attractive. but i want my husband, my friend, and the father of my beautiful children. how do i get past the thought of another woman having my husband? Not my fiancé, not my boyfriend, but my husband! i still love him even though he thinks i want to leave i really want him to do better and stop me before i walk out! my husband told me that he doesn’t feel loved anymore, just because of this co-worker he has be cheating on with me that he wants a divorce, i was devastated, heart broken i begged him to listen to me that we can work it out like we always do, but he didn’t listen, he told me that he met someone that loves and understands him, i begged him to consider our kids but he’s did listen. he left and i was frustrated, i began searching for help and answers, then i heard about a man that can Cast a spell to remind him of all the things we have been through together, at first I was scared then i decided to give it a try, and like magic my husband came back, apology and begging for forgiveness, thanks to this man, I’m posting this to help people with similar issues. You can contact him for help too. happylovespell2@gmail.com for more details Whatsapp and call...+2348133873774 You can also view on his Blogs site... https://happylovespell2.blogspot.com.

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  18. Save Your Relationship and Get Your Ex Boyfriend/Girlfriend Back!contact: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee.
    My Name Olivia Stephen form Tx,USA. After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact:Email him at: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com ,or Call/WhatsApp him on:+2348071622464 ,his website:https://unityspelltemple126848969.wordpress.com .

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  19. Share this Obat sakit gigi berlubang ahmad dhani Obat ruam kulit Dunia pasti berputar Obat benjolan di punggung Sally Sendiri Obat kista bartholin Jangan Menyerah Obat Penghancur Batu Ginjal Senandung Rindu Obat syaraf kejepit di leher Sebatas Mimpi Obat benjolan di kepala Tertatih Obat gagal ginjal I'm fallin in love Obat bisul di kulit kepala Sang Mantan Obat babak Thank you so much...

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  20. Hello Every One Out Here.

    I'm from USA Dallas. Am writing this great article to appreciate the good work of Dr IyaryI. I have been married for 2 years with pain and agony because my husband left me for another lady. I was reviewing some post on the internet on how i could get back my husband then, i saw a post by Kim Carberry from Canada. who testified of Dr IyaryI the almighty spiritual caster. I contacted Kim Carberry to confirm about Dr IyaryI and she guaranteed me and gave me the courage to contact Dr IyaryI for help. So, i contacted him and he assured me that my days of sorrows are over that i will get back my husband within 24 hours. I did all what he told me and am very happy today that my husband is back to me and we are now living happily like never before and i can boldly and proudly testify to the world that Dr IyaryI is a good and remarkable helper that specializes on different kind of spells. If you need his help, then contact him on E-mail: (driayaryi2012@hotmail.com) And also Reach him on WhatsApp Number: +2349057915709 Thanks Dr IyaryI

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  21. TO ALL WOMEN OUT THERE GOING THROUGH HARD TIMES IN MARRIAGE READ THIS ARTICLE AND CONTACT DR. OLU TO SAVE YOUR MARRIAGE.
    I want to say a very big thanks to Dr OLU for the wonderful work he did for me in helping me to save my marriage, my husband ask for a divorce letter because of the little misunderstanding we had in the past few month, And i never wanted this because i love my husband so much and all our investment was a joint business and i don't want to be far away from my family and my two lovely kids. My friend told me about Dr OLU and how he also helped her with her marital issues, so i had to contact him because i want to stop my husband from completing the divorce letter and i want to keep my family together and after contacting him, i was told what i needed to do and when i was going to start seeing the result, I did as Dr. OLU has instructed and after 3 days my Husband call me and start asking for my forgiveness and it was all like a dream to me and we are all living happily together again all thanks to Dr OLU. Contact Him today for marital help via his Whatsapp number: +2348067704010 or call him.
    Email: drolusolutiontemple11@gmail.com or drolusolutiontemple@yahoo.com
    Also read more about him via his blog page: https://drolutemple1.blogspot.com





    TO ALL WOMEN OUT THERE GOING THROUGH HARD TIMES IN MARRIAGE READ THIS ARTICLE AND CONTACT DR. OLU TO SAVE YOUR MARRIAGE.
    I want to say a very big thanks to Dr OLU for the wonderful work he did for me in helping me to save my marriage, my husband ask for a divorce letter because of the little misunderstanding we had in the past few month, And i never wanted this because i love my husband so much and all our investment was a joint business and i don't want to be far away from my family and my two lovely kids. My friend told me about Dr OLU and how he also helped her with her marital issues, so i had to contact him because i want to stop my husband from completing the divorce letter and i want to keep my family together and after contacting him, i was told what i needed to do and when i was going to start seeing the result, I did as Dr. OLU has instructed and after 3 days my Husband call me and start asking for my forgiveness and it was all like a dream to me and we are all living happily together again all thanks to Dr OLU. Contact Him today for marital help via his Whatsapp number: +2348067704010 or call him.
    Email: drolusolutiontemple11@gmail.com or drolusolutiontemple@yahoo.com
    Also read more about him via his blog page: https://drolutemple1.blogspot.com

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  22. Henderson Elizabeth
    Dr joy is a trust worthy spell caster and he will be of great help to you. I never believed in spell casting but After 4 years of marriage my husband left me because I lost my womb, and i was unable to give birth to children. I felt like my life has come to an end, and i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time, but thanks to this spell caster called Dr joy whom i met online after my friend Becky Ross told me how he also helped her to bring back her husband in less than 2 days. I believed her and decided to give Dr joy a try and i contacted him on his email joylovespell@gmail.com. and explained my problems to him. He laughed and told me that In less than 2 days, my Husband will come back to me again, and that he will restore my womb and i will give birth to children. At first i thought it was a joke but i took courage and believed as Dr joy has said and it did happen just as this Great spell caster said, My husband called me and was crying, begging for forgiveness. I forgive him and today i am so glad that all worries and problems has gone away, and we are even happier than before, another good news is that i am pregnant now, and very soon we will have our baby. Dr joy is really a gifted and a powerful spiritual man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man. I advice you all If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems just Contact Dr joy on his email on joylovespell@gmail.com. because he will always help you to solve all problems. Once again thank you Dr joy. Thank you, thank you.
    you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348100452479.

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  23. Call Dr.Dave For Urgent Love Spell +55 (11) 97732-4658
    I'm Olivia Megan from United State,I'm happy that my husband is back into my life after 2 years of divorce, Dr.Davi brought my husband back today and i am so excited. I got Dr.Davi email online when a lady was testifying about the strong spell caster who restored her marriage then I said to myself since he helped her, he can also help me,so i emailed him and told him the pain that I was going through,and he told me what to do and i did it,Then he did an urgent Love spell for me. 48 hours later, my husband came back home and with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me. Then from that day,our marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr.Davi. Our family is complete again. If you are going through Divorce/Broke-up since Dr.Davi helped me, he can also help you..email him at: Spelltemple@fastmail.com,Thank you Dr Davi for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me.
    Email him: Spelltemple@fastmail.com Call him now +55 (11) 97732-4658

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