GAPS AND STANDARDS: Jonathan Kozol visits Flint!

THURSDAY, APRIL 26, 2018

Part 4—Nobody cares about this:
Long ago and far away, Jonathan Kozol wrote a book which won a National Book Award.

The year was 1967. The book was called Death At an Early Age. We read the book when we were in college. We were lucky enough to get to know Kozol a tiny tad a few years later on.

In his opening paragraph, right on page one, Kozol described a type of achievement gap. The child described here was just one child, but, as a general matter, this story rings true today:
KOZOL (1967): Stephen is eight years old. A picture of him standing in front of the bulletin board on Arab bedouins shows a little light-brown person staring with unusual concentration at a chosen spot upon the floor. Stephen is tiny, desperate, unwell. Sometimes he talks to himself. He moves his mouth as if he were talking. At other times he laughs out loud in class for no apparent reason. He is also an indescribably mild and unmalicious child. He cannot do any of his school work very well. His math and reading are poor...He is in the Fourth Grade now but his work is barely at the level of the Second. Nobody has complained about the things that have happened to Stephen because he does not have any mother or father.
A dose of bathos was offered there, but so was an achievement gap. Although this child was in just his fourth year of school, he was already two years behind!

According to Kozol's description, Stephen was in the fourth grade, but his work, in reading and math, was barely at second grade level. Gaps like these tend to end poorly.

(In 2015, Kozol told NPR where Stephen ended up.)

Kozol was describing his work as a teacher in the Boston Public Schools in the 1964-65 school year. More than fifty years later, achievement gaps like the one he described haven't gone away—nor has the screaming indifference to kids like Stephen which Kozol went on to describe.

Those achievement gaps are still with us, though we liberals don't discuss them. Consider the gap between the Newton, Mass. public schools—the schools Kozol attended as a child—and the public schools of Flint, Michigan, grades 3-8 inclusive:
Where the average student stood:
Newton, Mass.: 3.1 years above grade level
Flint, Michigan.: 2.3 years below grade level
Those numbers emerge from a recent exhaustive study by Professor Reardon and two associates. Those data can be found within the graphics offered by the New York Times in this report about the Reardon study.

Reardon studied achievement on standardized tests in reading and math for all students in Grades 3-8. On that basis, it's reasonable to assume that the gap described by those numbers might have been in place by the start of the sixth grade year.

This would mean that the average sixth-grader in Newton's public schools was 5.4 grade levels ahead of the average student in Flint. Absent clarification, these are somewhat murky claims, but there's little doubt that they point to a real situation.

What differences obtain between the students in Newton and Flint? Using Professor Reardon's data, we might start with the matter of family income:
Median family income of students:
Newton, Mass.: $147,000
Flint, Michigan: $22,000
The income gap is large. According to Reardon, the demographics differ substantially too:
Demographics of student populations:
Newton, Mass.: 67 percent white; 5 percent black; 7 percent Hispanic; 21 percent Asian-American

Flint, Michigan: 15 percent white; 78 percent black; 4 percent Hispanic; 3 percent Asian-American
There are certainly more than "two Americas." But many gaps can be observed between these two groups of good and decent, deserving kids, with the occasional hard-head thrown in.

Incomparably, we selected Flint for a reason. (According to the leading authority on the school district, the Flint Community Schools serve roughly 30,000 students.)

In the past few years, Flint became the focus of modern-day liberal pseudo-concern—the kind of weeping and moaning in which we liberals tend to engage to demonstrate our moral goodness, to others and to ourselves.

Rachel Maddow took the lead in this effort. As usual, she picked and chose her facts with elan, scaring the children of Flint out of their wits in the process.

The water problem confronting Flint was, and is, an actual problem. That achievement gap is a larger problem, and you will never hear a word about it from the multimillionaire TV stars who entertain you night after night on corporate partisan cable.

Back when Kozol's book appeared, the idea that black kids were getting shortchanged in school was still a basic part of the liberal agenda. It soon turned out that erasing those gaps was a harder task than we had imagined, and we largely abandoned that project and that topic.

This explains why you never hear a word from your favorite "liberal" stars about present-day kids like Stephen. The topic has basically ceased to exist. It doesn't even occur to cable stars to talk about the lives and interests of children like him. (In full fairness, their owners wouldn't permit it!)

Kozol said no one cared about Stephen because he didn't have parents. Today, no one cares about those achievement gaps because, as a Cable News Entertainment Product, the topic, and the kids, wouldn't sell.

Why doesn't Chris Hayes discuss this remarkable topic? It's certainly not for lack of information! Ever so briefly, let's consider the sorts of gaps which emerge from the voluminous Naep data, which the federal government provides as a quixotic gesture.

The federal government runs the 47-year-old Naep testing program and provides its voluminous data. That said, you couldn't get modern journalists or liberals to discuss those data if you kidnapped all their grandmothers and threatened to throw them off bridges.

The data show enormous gains, but they also show enormous gaps. Pointlessly, we've often detailed the very large gains. Today, let's consider the gaps which exist in the results from Grade 8 math in last year's nationwide testing.

An income gap emerges from the Naep data. Below, you see the way scores diverge based on family income:
Average scores, Grade 8 math
American public schools, 2017 Naep:
All students:
281.96
Higher-income students: 296.56
Lower-income students: 266.89
By a very rough rule of thumb, a ten-point gap on the Naep scale is often equated to one academic year. That would suggest that lower-income students (those eligible for free or reduced-price lunch) were performing something like three years below their higher-income, ineligible peers.

Three years is a very large difference! The gaps get even larger when we "disaggregate" the scores in the traditional manner:
Average scores, Grade 8 math
American public schools, 2017 Naep:
All students:
281.96
White students: 292.16
Black students: 259,60
Hispanic students: 268.49
Asian-American students: 309.52
Again applying the (very rough) ten-point rule, the gaps there start looking horrific. To show you how bad our situation is, we'll even punish you with this:
Average scores, Grade 8 math
American public schools, 2017 Naep:
Higher-income white students:
299.74
Lower-income white students: 275.28

Higher-income black students: 272.71
Lower-income black students: 255.02
Lots of black kids are doing well in school. Lots of white kids are struggling.

That said, the averages there are daunting. By a couple of points, lower-income white kids outscored their higher-income black peers!

As this occurs, your cable stars entertain you with Stormy. Gail Collins keeps shoveling this.

Might we close by stating the obvious? At least within our journalistic elite, nobody cares about this!

Rachel Maddow won't talk about this. Meanwhile, this still in:

Arne Duncan thinks the solution is to teach all these kids the same "grade-level" math curriculum, and to make the curriculum harder!

Tomorrow: Raising standards for journalists and experts

28 comments:

  1. In a working system of education no one can be "2.3 years below grade level". Quite simply: they shouldn't be able to advance to the next grade until they are at the level.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. What good does that do the student?

      Delete
    2. What a surprise, that wasn't a stake holder whose interests you had considered.

      Delete
    3. So, your idea of student's interests is getting the high school diploma without being able to read?

      Perhaps I misunderstood, but you didn't explain...

      Delete
    4. Against and for arguments [LINK]. For many students the superior alternative would include remedial, extended hour, and year round instruction.

      fn 13 from the Wikpedia article:

      [QUOTE]
      ...The Retention Dilemma [LINKto pdf]

      Sometimes children are recommended for retention when their academic performance is low or if they fail to meet grade-level performance standards established by the district or state. Some children may be recommended for retention if they seem socially immature, display behavior problems, or are just beginning to learn English. Occasionally, students who have missed many school days because they were ill or because of frequent moves are recommended for retention.

      Research indicates that neither grade retention nor social promotion (the practice of promoting students with their same age-peers although they have not mastered current grade level content) is likely to enhance a child’s learning. Research and common sense both indicate that simply having a child repeat a grade is unlikely to address the problems a child is experiencing. Likewise, simply promoting a student who is experiencing academic or behavioral problems to the next grade without additional support is not likely to be an effective solution either.

      When faced with a recommendation to retain a child, the real task is not to decide to retain or not to retain but, rather, to identify specific intervention strategies to enhance the cognitive and social development of the child and promote his or her learning and success at school.

      Given the evidence indicating that grade retention, when compared with social promotion of similar children, is an ineffective and possibly harmful intervention, “promotion plus” (i.e., combining grade promotion and effective, evidence-based interventions) is most likely to benefit children with low achievement or behavior problems.

      Too often, anecdotal evidence, clinical experience, and folklore overshadow the results of empirical research. But what does research show? Is retention effective? The following information, taken from research during the last 100 years, can help parents better understand the possible effects of retention on their child and advocate for effective intervention strategies.

      Effects of grade retention. The body of research on retention indicates that:

      • Initial academic improvements may occur during the year the student is retained. However, many research studies show that achievement gains decline within 2–3 years of retention. This means that over time, children who were retained either do not show higher achievement, or sometimes show lower achievement than similar groups of children who were not retained. Without specific interventions, most retained students do not catch up.

      • In adolescence, retained students are more likely to experience problems such as poor interactions with peers, disliking school, behavior problems, and lower self-esteem.

      • Students who were retained are 5–11 times more likely to drop out of school. The probability is even higher for students who are retained more than once. Actually, grade retention is one of the most powerful predictors of high school drop out.


      • For most students, grade retention had a negative impact on all areas of achievement (e.g., reading, math, and oral and written language) and social and emotional adjustment (e.g., peer relationships, selfesteem, problem behaviors, and attendance).

      • A study of sixth graders perceptions indicated that they consider retention as one of the most stressful life events.

      continued...

      Delete
    5. ...continued

      • Retention may help students who have missed many days of school, but only if their attendance improves and if the child will not be considerably older than the other students. At this time, however, there are no specific indicators that predict which children could benefit from retention.

      Alternative strategies. However, research does provide evidence that supports the effectiveness of other educational interventions.... [END QUOTE]

      Delete
    6. Heh. I discourage feeding the trolls, of which group I'm sometimes (rightfully) considered a member, but you just gave an example of why we shouldn't. Thanks.

      Mao

      Delete
  2. The link in Somerby's article concerning Stephen leads to a description of Kozol being fired for reading Langston Hughes to his 4th graders, deviating from the curriculum. How exactly is reading an adult poem help those kids who are 2years behind catch up.

    Somerby implies that nothing has changed for black kids. I will bet that none of them are being whipped in the basement as Stephen was. That is a huge change in public schools nationwide.

    I lived in Newton for a few years. It has a beautiful, large public library. What has happened to public libraries across the board in past decades? Even in wealthy communities! The internet is no substitute.

    Somerby cares about gaps. Does he care about libraries? Hard to tell.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You, yourself, must be terribly concerned with the role libraries are playing in communities these days for you to trouble yourself enough to include taking notice of Somerby's apparent failure to do something about it here, in the latest of your unending, whiny, pointless comments. You're quite the activist, 2:19 PM.

      Delete
    2. These threads' lyin' lonely troll 2:19 PM writes:
      _______________________
      The link in Somerby's article concerning Stephen leads to a description of Kozol being fired for reading Langston Hughes to his 4th graders, deviating from the curriculum. How exactly is reading an adult poem help those kids who are 2 years behind catch up.
      _______________________

      Here are three stanzas from the "adult poem" in the audio available at Somerby's link, which, in order to have something to whine about, 2:19 PM would have you believe leaves one baffled as to what its usefulness might be to academically under achieving inner city grade school students:

      [QUOTE] Jonathan Kozol: They'd had nine sustitute teachers that year, before me. They were called "the bad fourth grade."

      NPR education correspondent Claudio Sanchez: Some could barely read or write.

      Kozol: I just would do anything to get them to want to read, to want to read something.

      Sanchez: The curriculum though, was a reflection of its time.

      Kozol: Jane and Spot kind of stories.

      Sanchez: The children, says Kozol, had no interest in that at all.

      Kozol: So finally, I settled on Langston Hughes, probably the most respected black poet in America, one of the most respected poets, period.

      Sanchez: One poem, in particular, mesmerized his students.

      Kozol: Landlord, landlord,
      My roof has sprung a leak.
      Don’t you ’member I told you about it
      Way last week?

      Landlord, landlord,
      These steps is broken down.
      When you come up yourself
      It’s a wonder you don’t fall down.


      Sanchez: The poem was titled, The Ballad of the Landlord.

      Kozol: What? You gonna get eviction orders?
      You gonna cut off my heat?
      You gonna take my furniture and
      Throw it in the street?


      Kozol: It was like the first time I had come into the class that they all were on the edge of their seats. A child, who had been quite belligerent to me and not trusting of me, came up to me and sort of touched my shoulder and asked me if she could bring that book home to her mother, the Landlord poem. [END QUOTE]

      Delete
    3. So, the problem was that they just didn't want to read? Don't be an idiot.

      This is like the movies that fix educational problems using hiphop. They suggest that if you really really care then learning magically happens, no teacher training or expertise needed.

      Those kids just needed to hear the right poem, that's all.

      Delete
    4. The lyin' lonely troll doubles down. That's what trolls do.

      Delete
    5. "Those kids just needed to hear the right poem, that's all."

      Yes, you inadvertently stumbled across a real truth. Internal change can happen in an instant. You, unfortunately, seem set in your ways, and I'd be surprised if you ever have listened to hip-hop, because it is, like rap, a genuine and meaningful form of expression. Just like the blues.

      Cmike, thank you for the details.

      Leroy

      Delete
    6. Somerby implies that nothing has changed for black kids.

      You don't read this blog much, do you? Somerby has many times written about how much better the situation is now from then. In this post he is talking specifically about achievement gaps, not general treatment, segregation, etc.

      Somerby cares about gaps. Does he care about libraries? Hard to tell.

      What? The post wasn't about libraries. Why should he mention them?

      Delete
  3. "Consider the gap between the Newton, Mass. public schools—the schools Kozol attended as a child—and the public schools of Flint, Michigan, grades 3-8 inclusive:...

    Those numbers emerge from a recent exhaustive study by Professor Reardon and two associates....

    This would mean that the average sixth-grader in Newton's public schools was 5.4 grade levels ahead of the average student in Flint."

    Bob Somerby

    "Mr. Reardon said the analysis should not be used to rank districts or schools."

    NYT Article to which Somerby linked.

    "Because districts in different states use different achievement tests, proficiency categories in different states are not comparable"

    Reardon Study

    Bob is so full of it.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The ironic thing is, prompted by Bob's own posts about education, the more I learn, the more I'm aware of Bob's shortcomings when he writes about this. His misinterpretation of studies or his unwillingness to examine them in a serious way really undermines his value as a writer on educational matters.

      He seems troubled by achievement gaps, and seems to imply a connection between poverty and student performance. He acts as if everyone is ignoring this, from Rachel to any and all academics who study education to interested parties calling for reform.

      The trouble is, there is a wealth of discussion and study of poverty and its effects on education. People who deal with education every day and who are passionate about it are well aware of the issues surrounding poverty. That was the motivating factor behind Title One back in 1965. That also leads to programs like the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs and the Child Nutrition Act, as well as the introduction of Advanced Placement programs in schools. The latter idea speaks to Somerby's complaint that you shouldn't "teach the same math to all students." But he never, to my knowledge, acknowledges any of this.

      Somerby could consider acting as a real journalist here: talk about his own experiences in the classroom, delve into the plethora of resources that discuss real issues, look at what actual teachers have to say...for example. If you are going to criticize everyone else for their ideas about standards and reform, shouldn't you at least try to offer your own practical ideas? Otherwise, you are just sitting on the sidelines acting like a heckler.

      But he seems to prefer telling us that no one cares.

      Except himself, of course.

      Delete
    2. Somerby is primarily writing about the media. Education is just one topic that he cares about a lot and he wants the media to pay more attention to it. He is not pretending to be an education writer himself, though he does offer his opinions.

      It's obvious to everyone, including Somerby, that the gaps based on income and race have been discussed ad nauseam for the past few decades. I think you're misunderstanding Somerby's emphasis. He's not saying nobody cares -- he's saying nobody in the liberal media cares. And thus the educational system is being ruled by dogmatists, with what he'd see as right-wing agendas (e.g. "raise standards and the achievements will follow").

      If you search through his archives you will find some instances where he describes his experiences as a teacher, though not a lot. You are correct that he doesn't offer a lot of solutions. He would probably respond that he's not trying to solve the problem here, just to get the media to talk about it in an open and honest way.

      Delete
  4. I’m glad Bob focuses on this issue. There is nothing more important than a well-rounded education in terms of welfare for humanity, which at an early age should include exposure to the arts and critical thinking. Unfortunately, that seems to be the privilege of the rich.

    Exposure to the Humanities, Science and Civics seems not much part of the public schools’ curriculum nowadays, unless you live in a wealthy community. Such exposure occurs much later in the educational system, where its potency for change has been diminished if only youngsters had been exposed much earlier.

    I’d like to hear more from Bob regarding privatization of our schools, because that, to me, is a menacing proposition.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Bob will say exactly nothing about privatization. He claims he is only interested in public schools, as if the two weren't connected.

      As far as your assertion that humanities, science, and civics don't seem to be part of the curriculum, what evidence do you have for that?
      My cousin teaches advanced music theory and other music classes, including directing multiple choirs, in a rural school district in a Southern state.

      One pretty clear takeaway from Bob is that it is easy and often misleading or hurtful to throw out blanket statements like "humanities, science, and civics don't seem to be part of the curriculum" (especially without evidence) because those kinds of statements can be used by reformers with ulterior motives.

      If, on the other hand, your statement is true, then the public schools do need to be "reformed" to offer those courses.

      Delete
    2. "My cousin teaches advanced music theory and other music classes, including directing multiple choirs, in a rural school district in a Southern state."

      What type of school? High-school, or college? Is it publicly funded? I think you miss my point. Good schools exist. Where are they going?

      But your criticism is well taken. I haven’t the evidence that you seek. I was lucky enough to have been well-educated in public schools, and I wish everyone had my experiences. Not to change the subject, but we now have a tangerine as our President, and Maddow as a “liberal”. Hence my broad brush.

      Delete
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