GAPS AND STANDARDS: The kid who couldn't pass Algebra 1!

FRIDAY, APRIL 27, 2018

Part 5—The largest achievement gaps yet:
Some people are going to say that we saved the most daunting for last.

That wasn't part of a plan! That said, we're going look at the largest achievement gaps yet today—and we aren't going to burden ourselves with invidious, artificial comparisons.

We won't be comparing a high-income county in Massachusetts to a low-income midwestern city. We won't be reporting scores by different "racial groups," or by kids whose families have different incomes.

We're going to do something much simpler today. We're going to see how higher-achieving students across the nation performed in math on the Naep as compared to their lower-achieving peers, full stop.

The gaps we'll see will be very large. But first, that one kid in L.A.

Long ago and far away, the Los Angeles Times did something very unusual. Just as Jonathan Kozol once took the time to discuss an 8-year-old child named Stephen, the famous newspaper took the time to publish a detailed report about a decent, deserving kid who couldn't pass Algebra 1.

She took the course six or seven times. She failed it every time.

Duke Helfand's 3200-word, front-page report was smart, informative and humane—and it dealt with a deserving low-income kid. For all those reasons, it was wholly ignored by the liberal world.

Helfand's report should have won awards, but it dealt with the kind of kid we liberals don't care about. The report appeared in 2006. Helfand started like this:
HELFAND (1/30/06): Each morning, when Gabriela Ocampo looked up at the chalkboard in her ninth-grade algebra class, her spirits sank.

There she saw a mysterious language of polynomials and slope intercepts that looked about as familiar as hieroglyphics.

She knew she would face another day of confusion, another day of pretending to follow along. She could hardly do long division, let alone solve for x.

"I felt like, 'Oh, my God, what am I going to do?' " she recalled.

Gabriela failed that first semester of freshman algebra. She failed again and again—six times in six semesters. And because students in Los Angeles Unified schools must pass algebra to graduate, her hopes for a diploma grew dimmer with each F.

Midway through 12th grade, Gabriela gathered her textbooks, dropped them at the campus book room and, without telling a soul, vanished from Birmingham High School.

Her story might be just a footnote to the Class of 2005 except that hundreds of her classmates, along with thousands of others across the district, also failed algebra.
"Of all the obstacles to graduation, algebra was the most daunting," Helfand said as he continued. He quoted Superintendent Roy Romer saying this:

"[Algebra 1] triggers dropouts more than any single subject. I think it is a cumulative failure of our ability to teach math adequately in the public school system."

Romer, a former governor of Colorado, may have had his head up his ascot. In the case of this particular student, the system's "failure to teach math" had surfaced long before she failed Algebra 1 a ludicrous six or seven times, through four ludicrous years of educational malpractice.

The "failure to teach math," if that's what it was, seemed to have surfaced long before that.

This particular high school student "could hardly do long division," or at least so Helfand reported. This suggests that a failure to communicate had started long before she was crazily told to take Algebra 1 over and over again.

The story told in Helfand's report is arguably a story of educational malpractice. The statement by Romer—he had no background in education when he took the superintendent's job—may tell a story about the frequent, remarkable cluelessness of our "educational leaders," even of our "education experts."

That said, the most obvious story Helfand told is a story of giant achievement gaps. The story goes something like this:

By the time that deserving kid took Algebra 1 in the ninth grade, many of her classmates across the country—even right there in L.A.—had breezed through Algebra 1 in the seventh or eighth grade. By way of contrast, she couldn't pass the course at all, through four years of attempts.

How big are the achievement gaps across the United States? Let's forget about individual school districts and talk about our student population at a whole.

More specifically, let's talk about the way they scored in math on the 2011 Naep.

We're choosing that year because we have the data at hand, and because nothing of any particular substance has changed since then. Let's talk about the achievement gaps which obtained among all students, all across the country, on those 2011 tests.

Let's start with Grade 8 math. The average score nationwide that year was 283.85. That represented a giant improvement over the testing in 1991, when the average score was 262.55.

(Those are the scores for all U.S. schools, public as well as private. The average score for public school kids in 2011 was only slightly lower—282.73.)

In 2011, the average score nationwide was 283.85. That said, good God! Below, you see the scores which were achieved at the 90th and 10th percentiles—and you see a gigantic gap:
Grade 8 math, 2011 Naep
All schools, public and private:
Average score:
283.85

90th percentile: 329
10th percentile: 237
To peruse those data, and data from earlier years, click here, scroll to pages 34-35.

Say what? An eighth-grader who scored at the 90th percentile that year outscored her counterpart at the 10th percentile by a walloping 92 points! Applying that very rough "ten-point rule," this represents an achievement gap of something resembling nine years!

Meanwhile, remember how percentiles work. Presumably, something like ten percent of that year's eighth graders scored higher than that 90th percentile score. Meanwhile, something like ten percent of that year's eighth-graders scored lower than 237.

We're talking about a gigantic gap between large numbers of eighth graders. Do such notions even make sense? Could there possibly be a nine-year achievement gap by the end of eighth grade?

At such points, the utility of the ten-point rule may start breaking down. But please consider the following, keeping Helfand's report in mind:

Some kids, by the end of eighth grade, may know little math at all. They may be deeply confused, as was the case with Helfand's subject, who "could hardly do long division."

Other kids—in Lexington, Massachusetts, let's say—breezed through Algebra 1 years before, then hit the harder stuff. They're years beyond traditional "grade level," and they're eager for more. These are the basic facts of life within our large, sprawling nation.

We've just shown you the largest achievement gap yet! So you'll know, here are the corresponding data from Grade 4 math in 2011. Click here, scroll to pages 9-10:
Grade 4 math, 2011 Naep
All schools, public and private:
Average score:
240.68

90th percentile: 276
10th percentile: 203
Between the 90th and 10th percentiles, a giant gap obtained.

Based on Helfand's report, Gabriella Ocampo would have been in the eighth grade in 2001. Scores were lower on the Naep that year, but the gaps were still very large, as you can see at the link above.

While some kids powered far ahead, that deserving kid in L.A. "could hardly do long division." Somewhere along the way, her math instruction had almost completely washed out.

Almost surely, she would have scored at or below the 10th percentile that year. But while her math learning had somehow washed out, there were plenty of kids, all over the nation, who were performing light-years beyond her level.

A giant achievement gap obtained, and still does today. But so what? Along comes Arne Duncan, saying that all our eighth grade kids should be taught the same eighth grade math!

Nor is it just Duncan! Amazingly, astoundingly even, the whole American education establishment is still somehow locked in a world where eighth graders are all pretty much alike—Bobby and Betty and Billy and Suzy and all the other kids.

Because they're all in eighth grade, they should all be taught the same eighth grade math! That includes the kids, all over the country, who are performing at the upper reaches of our vast achievement gaps. It includes the kids, like Helfand's subject, who can barely do any math at all, and are going to drop out of school when they flunk Algebra 1.

Duncan's recent column in the Washington Post made amazingly little actual sense. Incoherently, he attributed 47 years of improving scores on the Naep to "education reforms" of the past ten years. Then too, he also said this:

He said that Gabriella Ocampo, and other deserving kids like her, should be confronted with the same "learning standards" as a bunch of whiz kids in Lexington, Mass.—or up around Silicon Valley, in potent school districts like these:
Where the average student stands
Selected California school districts:

Cupertino Union School District

Median family income: $150,000
3.1 years above grade level

Los Altos School District
Median family income: $205,000
3.2 years above grade level

Saratoga Union School District
Median family income: $213,000
3.1 years above grade level

Palo Alto Unified School District
Median family income: $188,000
2.5 years above grade level
Those data come from Professor Reardon's recent study. And remember—those years above grade level are the average for grades 3-8 inclusive. Presumably, if we consider grade 8 alone, the average years above grade level would be higher.

There are high-scoring students right there in L.A., of course. But around the country, in high-income districts, there are many more.

There are also lots of students like Gabriella, who could barely do long division when she entered high school. Along come our educational leaders to say that they should all be taught the same Grade 8 math, from the same "learning standards."

We leave you today with a question. What sort of standards do we maintain for our educational leaders and our "education experts?" Do we, do our newspapers and cable news stars, maintain any standards at all?

Our leaders and experts were shocked, just shocked, by the recent standardized test cheating scandals—a topic we began discussing in the Baltimore Sun in the mid-1970s. Beyond that, they seem to think that our eighth graders are pretty much all alike.

Over the past many years, they've peddled cherry-picked propaganda about test scores in much the way other folk breathe. Is it our imagination, or do they exist to peddle the ideas of the (possibly well-intentioned) billionaires who fund them?

Clearly, it's all anthropology now! God died in the 19th century. By now, Aristotle's "rational animal" has plainly walked away too.

Plainly, we aren't rational animals, or anything dimly like that. As we all await Mr. Trump's War, only one question remains:

Who the heck is Arne Duncan? Also, what kinds of creatures are we, really? And how did we get to this place?

Coming soon The liberal world's "solutions"

53 comments:

  1. "There are also lots of students like Gabriella, who could barely do long division when she entered high school."

    Yeah, they are victims of the 'social promotion' practice. What else is new?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
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    2. mm,
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    3. No, they're victims of the fact that -- like English prosody is to some people, or learning a new language -- they just can't grasp the connections. It doesn't click.

      Nothing wrong with that, either. Forcing these kids to repeatedly swallow Algebra is abusive.

      Delete
    4. High-school algebra (not to mention long division) is not the rocket science. With an adequate teacher, any normal child growing up in a non-ghetto environment (which is the context of this post) should be able to figure out the quadratic equation and such. If they try and try again and they can't, then it's time for special ed.

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  2. Bob, these people know that all 8th graders don't belong at the same level. Of course they do. But you see, we have ourselves a "multicultural" society. That is to say, we got lots of people from all over the world living here. And here's the problem: in selling this idea of a multicultural society, a giant lie was driven into our heads through endless propaganda. Namely, that "we're all the same."

    You see, if they started tracking children based on performance, it would very quickly and very evidently become racial sorting. That would be very bad in terms of selling this idea of "diversity [being] our greatest strength."

    So instead, they just pretend this makes sense, and who cares that it fucks over basically everyone. There is simply no cost too high to appease the great god diversity.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Diversity means that some people are good at math and some aren't.

      It's a proper ideal.

      Delete
    2. The neoliberal view is that because there is diversity to be found among individuals both the fairest and the most wealth maximizing way, always, to organize society is as a meritocracy. In the post-industrial world the near final ordering of what each person deserves then will be determined by their academic performance over the course of their primary, secondary, and post secondary school careers- the exception being for those academic under achievers who go on to spectacular success as athletes, artists, or entrepreneurs.

      Again, according to neoliberalism, whereas persons do have a right to live in a meritocracy, society should grant them no other birth right, regardless of how affluent the society is. The neoliberal view is that, beyond the right to compete, advantages are to be reserved/preserved for the beneficiaries both of private acts of charity and what parents or extended family members share with their own relations. That there is a class of children who benefit from being born into well off families serves to create an additional incentive for individuals to strive to succeed, or rather it creates this incentive among those who, from their teen years on, make long run calculations which take into consideration what they want for their progeny.

      New Deal/Great Society liberals (social democrats) have a different, more philosophically Rawlsian view about what the obligations of society to the individual should be.

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    3. Good God almighty, you're a crushing bore.

      Delete
    4. I think this puts it more succinctly, Cmike.

      Leroy

      Delete
    5. I know, I do it all the time. Thanks for reminding me of Rawls. I'm a Dewey fan as well. I also like Booth , though I assume he is an acquired taste.

      Leroy

      Delete
  3. Helfand's article refers to the Los Angeles school district. Their practices and standards do not necessarily correspond to those in the thousands of other school districts around the country.

    Educational policy, curriculum and standards are set mostly at the state and local level. And as 33 states have Republican control, perhaps it would be helpful if Somerby examined the educational policies in those states. That is, if Somerby truly cared about education and educational policy.

    Somerby shows no interest in providing an honest, informative view of the way education actually works in America. He is content to work with his own narrow set of facts and prejudices, bolstered by the bathos of a 12-year-old newspaper story. And, he wants to shame and criticize just one side in the debate.

    He won't read this or care, so screw it.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. They're all about the same. More math and science.

      Delete
    2. "He won't read this or care, so screw it."

      Well, if he does, it would have been wasted time. Your pathos is wasted here.

      Delete
  4. I hate schools and teachers who fail deserving students.

    Up until 6th grade I went to a small farm town school in Ohio. I always had straight As, and was in the 99th percentile on national achievement tests. We had no tv, and I often read the same fiction as my parents in the evening because I'd already read all the children's fiction in the small town library. I loved school and devoured any task placed in front of me. I was the whole package of a very smart kid.

    We moved to a west coast wealthy suburb. They were doing a different kind of math, it looked different on the page and blackboard, and they talked about it differently. I had never gotten a C on a test, ever. Immediately, in my first weeks, D and F. The teacher did not look at my record and figure I might need tutoring. My parents were in a divorce and didn't pay any attention. I never recovered. 7th grade, 8th grade, I could not understand math, which I used to think was so easy only silly people didn't get it. By 8th grade I was actively cheating on tests, something I had previously felt deserved something like the death penalty. Failing math made me an academic failure and I couldn't concentrate on history or science or anything in school anymore because I hated it. Dropped out completely in 10th Grade eventually got a GED. Ended up becoming an artist, which is fine, but it shouldn't have been because I could barely do long division.

    ReplyDelete
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    1. Maybe this girl just can't grasp algebra. She might do better in coding, or music.

      The fault is not the schools. It's the mandated requirements.

      Delete
    2. "I never recovered."

      Tru dat.

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    3. As a math person, I have noticed that many excellent students are really bad at math. I think what happens is that they get stuck on one point that they don't understand. Without understanding that point, they can't understand what follows.

      Delete
    4. "As a math person..."
      Ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha.
      "As a comedian", is more like it.

      Delete
  5. But why did God die in the 19th century? Her downward spiral began when she failed group theory.

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  6. I am fairly sure that all 8th graders are NOT taking the same math - even in the same school district. Even when I was in the 8th grade in the Cretaceous Era (ca 1973) there were two tracks. I had 300 people in my 8th grade. About 60 of us - two sections - were picked to take algebra 1 in the 8th grade. The rest had to take 8th grade math. Then in the 9th grade they took Algebra 1 while we took Algebra II.

    That was all that was required, although some student continued to take math through high school (which was 10th to 12th while I went to school). Thus I took geometry in the 10th grade, with upperclassmen in my class. The same was true of 11th grade math, and other classes. I took German 3 in the 11th grade and also chemistry and had seniors in both classes.

    We had quasi-modular scheduling though, so we may have had more options for classes than they do today. We also had two shifts in high school, early which was 8 to 2:20 and late which was 9 to 3:20. For four of my six semesters, including my entire senior year, I came early and left late.

    I was young and foolish enough to think that education mattered.

    Now in my 16th year of a job that requires a 5th grade education.

    ReplyDelete
  7. If you're not a race realist you'll continue to be absolutely flummoxed by stories like this, like it appears even Bob is. "Why can't she do Algebra? It must have just been a parade of horrible teachers, right? After all, human ability to do higher order math isn't at all determined by genetic factors that may differ between racial groups. No, it was definitely bad teachers..."

    ReplyDelete
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    1. There probably are significant genetic differences in math ability among human beings. But, all races are represented in all parts of the distribution. There are some Asians at the bottom and some blacks at the top.

      Also, culture is no doubt significant. Many Asian cultures value learning highly. OTOH some black students actively discourage learning, as "acting white." Wikipedia says
      In the United States, acting white is a pejorative term, usually applied to African Americans, which refers to a person's perceived betrayal of their culture by assuming the social expectations of white society.[1][2] Success in education in particular (depending on one's cultural background) can be seen as a form of "selling out" by being disloyal to one's culture.[2]

      The term is controversial, and its precise meaning is hard to define.[1] Some minority students are discouraged from achieving in school by the negative prejudices of ethnic peers...

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    2. That's a rather open-minded sounding comment David in Cal. I'll have to say, I continue to be surprised you don't come across like this more often.

      Anyway, here's Ezra Klein on a related subject
      LINK:

      [QUOTE] Sam Harris, host of the Waking Up podcast, and I have been going back and forth over an interview Harris did with The Bell Curve author Charles Murray. In that interview, which first aired almost a year ago, the two argued that African Americans are, for a combination of genetic and environmental reasons, intrinsically and immutably less intelligent than white Americans, and Murray argued that the implications of this “forbidden knowledge” should shape social policy.

      Vox published a piece criticizing the conversation, Harris was offended by the piece and challenged me to a debate, and after a lot of back-and-forth, this is that debate.

      But even if you’re not interested in the backstory, I think this discussion — which is also being released on Harris’s podcast — is worth listening to. Harris’s view is that the criticism he and Murray have received is a moral panic driven by identity politics and political correctness.

      My view is that contemporary IQ results are inseparable from both the past and present of racism in America, and to conduct this conversation without voices who are expert on that subject, and who hail from the affected communities, is to miss the point from the outset.... [END QUOTE]

      continued...

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    3. Excerpts from the Harris/Klein podcast follow:

      Sam Harris:
      I mean, your last piece, you have this whole section on the “Flynn effect” LINK and how the Flynn effect should be read as accounting for the black-white differences in purely environmental terms. Well, even Flynn rejects that interpretation of the Flynn effect.

      I mean, he had originally had hoped, he publicly hoped, that his effect would account for that, but now he has acknowledged that the data don’t suggest that. There are many errors of this kind that you and Nisbett and Turkheimer are making when you criticize me and Murray. You criticize Murray for errors that he didn’t make....

      Ezra Klein
      [Y]ou mentioned James Flynn here. To prepare for this conversation, I called Flynn the other day. I spoke to him on Monday. His read of the evidence right now, and this is me quoting him. He says, “I think it is more probably than not that the IQ difference between black and white Americans is environmental. As a social scientist, I cannot be sure if they have a genetic advantage or disadvantage.” That is what James Flynn thinks of Monday....

      During our email exchange, let me use this as an example. You wrote to me, again quoting here, “If James Flynn is right, if Flynn is right, than the mean IQs of African-American children, who are second- and third-generation upper middle class, should have converged with those of the children of upper middle class whites. But as far as I understand they haven’t.”

      I think that sentence right there, that is not having enough experience, or having thought hard enough, or dug into the literature. I mean, there are different ways of learning about the world, of course, but about people who’s experience is different than yours.

      I mean, I’ll give one example that I actually said to you in these emails. African American families making $100,000 a year tend to live in neighborhoods with the same income composition as white families making $30,000 a year.

      To say that you have an African-American family that is middle class or upper middle class and that their experience is now so similar to that of whites that somehow the environmental atmosphere around them has equalized, I think that is something that is being missed and that, the way you—

      Sam Harris
      But Ezra what’s being missed—

      Ezra Klein
      I’ll just finish on this point. The way you leverage identity politics here is a way of not forcing yourself to see some of that.

      Sam Harris
      Okay, but this is something you’ve done by implication, more or less every time you’ve touched this topic. You’ve suggested that Murray is trying to establish that the differences between the mean IQs in various groups are genetic, right? He’s not. He’s simply suggested that there’s good reason to believe that genes and environment both play a part....

      continued...

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    4. ...continued

      Ezra Klein
      ...[S]cientifically what, the scientists who are on my side of this argument, think, and they include James Flynn and many others, they say that’s where we are here.

      Sam Harris
      Not quite, but okay.

      Ezra Klein
      I just quoted him to you. Again, I just spoke to him two days ago.

      Sam Harris
      No, but it was still a misleading summary of what he said. I know what he’s on record saying here. You’re interpreting it in a way that you like, I understand that.

      Ezra Klein
      James Flynn just said to me two days ago that it is consistent with the evidence that there is a genetic advantage or disadvantaged for African Americans. That it is entirely possible that the 10-point IQ difference we see reflects a 12-point environmental difference and a negative-two genetic difference.

      Sam Harris
      Sure, sure, many things are possible. We’re trying to judge on what is plausible to say...

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    5. David in Cal,

      It just dawned on me why you sounded so reasonable in your comment above. Your hero Thomas Sowell weighed in early and heavily against Hernstein and Murray's 1994 The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Maybe if Sowell had gotten more things right over the years, you would be a BernieBro today.

      Delete
    6. Isn't that just so precious. CMike tip toes up to the former John Bircher and offers him an olive branch. You really are one dumb motherfucker, CMike.

      Delete
    7. Well done, CMike! My comment was indeed influenced by Thomas Sowell's criticism of The Bell Curve for not paying enough attention to the impact of culture on intelligence.

      Delete
    8. Blacks are intrinsically and immutably better athletes, musicians, dancers, singers than whites by a huge margin. They are more fashionable and all around much much cooler and more fun and interesting than the dull and paranoid whites as exemplified by collassal snoozes like Sam Harris and Ezra Klein.

      Less intelligent? It depends on what you mean by intelligence. I would prefer to live in a world full of black people much more than a world full of Sam Harris's. That's for God damn sure.

      Delete
    9. Jeez, I thought this environment v genetics thing had been resolved already. Apparently not. Skinner was only partially right. When you’re shot out your mother’s birth canal, you have no free will. But it does develop over time it seems, in the sense that you can either make the decision to choose or to decide.

      What’s the difference? To decide is to make up your mind, two shoes is what you wear on your feet. As long as you know where your feet are.

      Leroy

      Delete
    10. Blacks are the mothers and fathers of all culture.

      Whites are good at math and exploitation and degrading the divinity and abundance that surrounds us.

      Whites are the true and timeless masters of war.

      Not that there isn't a fair amount of crossover.

      Delete
    11. CMike quotes Ezra Klein: "My view is that contemporary IQ results are inseparable from both the past and present of racism in America..."

      I agree. But, how does past racism affect the IQ of the average black person today? What's the mechanism? IMHO the mechanism must be that current black culture developed in a less than ideal way, due to past racism. But it follows that not all cultures are equal. This violates a typical liberal belief is that no culture is superior to any other culture.

      In short, liberalism has a problem: they're not allowed to explain the IQ difference by genetics. They're not allowed to inferior culture. The current state of the law gives blacks better protections than non-blacks, so the IQ difference can't be explained by discriminatory laws.

      They're left with the mythical "white privilege" -- which hasn't stopped Asians from out-doing whites.

      Delete
    12. LINK

      [QUOTE] ...Two centuries ago, all New Guineans were still "living in the Stone Age." That is, they still used stone tools similar to those superseded in Europe by metal tools thousands of years ago, and they dwelt in villages not organized under any centralized political authority.

      Whites had arrived, imposed centralized government, and brought material goods whose value New Guineans instantly recognized, ranging from steel axes, matches, and medicines to clothing, soft drinks, and umbrellas. In New Guinea all these goods were referred to collectively as "cargo."

      Many of the white colonialists openly despised New Guineans as "primitive." Even the least able of New Guinea's white "masters," as they were still called in 1972, enjoyed a far higher standard of living than New Guineans, higher even than charismatic politicians like Yali.

      Yet Yali had quizzed lots of whites as he was then quizzing me, and I had quizzed lots of New Guineans. He and I both knew perfectly well that New Guineans are on the average at least as smart as Europeans.

      All those things must have been on Yali's mind when, with yet another penetrating glance of his flashing eyes, he asked me, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?"

      It was a simple question that went to the heart of life as Yali experienced it. Yes, there still is a huge difference between the lifestyle of the average New Guinean and that of the average European or American. Comparable differences separate the lifestyles of other peoples of the world as well. Those huge disparities must have potent causes that one might think would be obvious.

      Yet Yali's apparently simple question is a difficult one to answer. I didn't have an answer then.... [END QUOTE]

      For an earlier look at the role nature and geography in the launching different civilizations, see Jacob Bronowski. Here are a total of sixty minutes of video from the first two episodes of his series The Ascent of Man which leads up to his concentration on the evolution of western civilization LINK LINK. Unfortunately, the Episode 2 video is offered in thumbnail but worthwhile to watch nonetheless.

      Delete
  8. Save Your Relationship and Get Your Ex Boyfriend/Girlfriend Back!contact: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee.
    My Name Olivia Stephen form Tx,USA. After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact
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    Email: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com
    Website:https://unityspelltemple126848969.wordpress.com .

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  9. Powerful Love Spell Caster-Get Your Ex Wife/Husband Back Fast Now By Dr.Happy..My name is John Cooney from NJ Usa, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real on line spell caster that is powerful and genuine, His name is Dr happy he helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my wife who left me, When i contacted Dr happy he cast an urgent love spell for me, and my wife who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. she is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken marriage/relationship back. because i am now happy with my wife. to anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Dr happy can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, urgent love spell,Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his email happylovespell2@gmail.com also His blogs site... https://happylovespell2.blogspot.com.ng/ for more info, whatsapp/call...+2348133873774
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    ReplyDelete
  10. Powerful Love Spell Caster-Get Your Ex Wife/Husband Back Fast Now By Dr.Happy..My name is John Cooney from NJ Usa, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real on line spell caster that is powerful and genuine, his name is Dr happy he helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my wife who left me, When i contacted Dr happy he cast an urgent love spell for me, and my wife who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. she is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken marriage/relationship back. because i am now happy with my wife. to anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Dr happy can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, urgent love spell,Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his email happylovespell2@gmail.com also His blogs site... https://happylovespell2.blogspot.com.ng/ for more info, whatsapp/call...+2348133873774
    Visit his Web site...http://happylovespel.webs.com/

    ReplyDelete
  11. Save Your Relationship and Get Your Ex Boyfriend/Girlfriend Back!contact: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee.
    My Name Olivia Stephen form Tx,USA. After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Unity can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Unity. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.Unity real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact
    Call/WhatsApp: +2348071622464
    Email: Unityspelltemple@gmail.com
    Website:https://unityspelltemple126848969.wordpress.com .

    ReplyDelete
  12. Powerful Love Spell Caster-Get Your Ex Wife/Husband Back Fast Now By Dr.Happy..My name is John Cooney from NJ Usa, I want to quickly tell the world that there is a real on line spell caster that is powerful and genuine, his name is Dr happy he helped me recently to reunite my relationship with my wife who left me, When i contacted Dr happy he cast an urgent love spell for me, and my wife who said she doesn't have anything to do with me again called me and started begging me to come back. she is back now with so much love and care. today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the powers to restore broken marriage/relationship back. because i am now happy with my wife. to anyone who is reading this article and needs any help, Dr happy can also offer any type of help like, Curing of all types of Diseases, Court Cases, Pregnancy Spell, urgent love spell,Spiritual protection and lot's more. You can contact him Via his email happylovespell2@gmail.com also His blogs site... https://happylovespell2.blogspot.com.ng/ for more info, whatsapp/call...+2348133873774
    Visit his Web site...http://happylovespel.webs.com/

    ReplyDelete
  13. I was crushed when my lover of three years left to be with another woman. I cried and sobbed every day, until it got so bad that I reached out to the Internet for help.And i saw a testimony of a spell caster Dr DAN who help alot of people like my case and i said let me give it a try so i contact him for help on website http://blessedspellhomewebsite2.me/ and he cast a love spell for me which take just 48 hours and now i am a happy woman. For what you have done for me,i will not stop to share your goodness to people out there for the good work you are doing.I hope God bless you as much as you have help me to get my Love back,visit him on blessedspellhome@gmail.com is the only answer to your problems. call him +1(310)-751-7818




    I was crushed when my lover of three years left to be with another woman. I cried and sobbed every day, until it got so bad that I reached out to the Internet for help.And i saw a testimony of a spell caster Dr DAN who help alot of people like my case and i said let me give it a try so i contact him for help on website http://blessedspellhomewebsite2.me/ and he cast a love spell for me which take just 48 hours and now i am a happy woman. For what you have done for me,i will not stop to share your goodness to people out there for the good work you are doing.I hope God bless you as much as you have help me to get my Love back,visit him on blessedspellhome@gmail.com is the only answer to your problems. call him +1(310)-751-7818

    ReplyDelete
  14. Unite And Get Your Ex Girlfriend/Boyfriend Back Urgent Love Spell, I'm Cassie Tiffany from texas, USA...I just found out about my husband cheating on me with a co-worker! We’ve been married going on two years. 2kids. lots of amazing momments together. i want to leave, but i love him so much. all i can think about is how nothing stopped him. how he has to see her everyday because they work together. we are both still young and very attractive. but i want my husband, my friend, and the father of my beautiful children. how do i get past the thought of another woman having my husband? Not my fiancé, not my boyfriend, but my husband! i still love him even though he thinks i want to leave i really want him to do better and stop me before i walk out! my husband told me that he doesn’t feel loved anymore, just because of this co-worker he has be cheating on with me that he wants a divorce, i was devastated, heart broken i begged him to listen to me that we can work it out like we always do, but he didn’t listen, he told me that he met someone that loves and understands him, i begged him to consider our kids but he’s did listen. he left and i was frustrated, i began searching for help and answers, then i heard about a man that can Cast a spell to remind him of all the things we have been through together, at first I was scared then i decided to give it a try, and like magic my husband came back, apology and begging for forgiveness, thanks to this man, I’m posting this to help people with similar issues. You can contact him for help too. email happylovespell2@gmail.com
    His blogs site...https://happylovespell2.blogspot.com.ng/ whatsapp/call...+2348133873774 for more info,
    Visit his Web site...http://happylovespel.webs.com/

    ReplyDelete
  15. Effective spell to bring your ex back with Dr Winner powerful love spell.....

    I can't really believe that i am with my Ex-Husband after when he broke up with me with 4 kids i thank Dr WINNER for helping me getting my man back. My happiness turn to bitterness,my joy turn to sorrow,my love turn to hate when my husband broke up with me. I was so unthinkable and i could not concentrate any more, i love my husband so much but he was cheating on me with another woman and this makes him broke up with me so that he can be able to get marry to the other lady and this lady i think cast a spell on my husband to make him hate me and my kids and this was so critical and uncalled-for me,I cry all day and night for God to send me a helper to get back my man until i went to Westmoreland to see a friend and who was having the same problem with me but she later got her husband back and i asked her how she was able to get her back and she told me that there was a powerful spell caster name Dr Winner that he help with love spell in getting back lost lovers back and i decided to contact him. He told me what is needed to be done for me to have my man back and i did it although i doubted it but i did it and i was garantee that i will see result after 48hours, and he told me that my husband was going to call me by 9pm in my time and i still doubted his word, to my surprise my husband really called me and told me that he miss me so much Oh My God i was so happy, and today i am happily with my man again and we are joyfully living together as one good family and i thank the powerful spell caster Dr Winner. He is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that good spell casters still exist and is Dr. Winner. if you are there and your lover is turning you down, or you have your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore contact the powerful spell caster Dr Winner and he will answer you, i am a living testimony and i will continue to testify of his goodness in my family,he turn my family to paradise and today we are all happy together Dr Winner i say thank sir,for you guenie help. Email him now:
    Winnersspellcast@gmail.com or contact him on his website: https://winnersspellcast.blogspot.com.ng

    ReplyDelete
  16. I NEED MY EX BACK DESPERATELY EMAIL DR. TRUST THROUGH HIS WEBSITE FOR URGENT AND FAST HELP: http://utimatespellcast.blogspot.com.ng/

    HI AM Sharon Poore Sidwell!! from Australia. with this great tears of joy and happiness in my heart today I want to give an unlimited thanks to this man Called Dr. Trust. I am happy today because my husband is now back with full of love, My husband left me for another woman,just because we had a little misunderstanding. he left me and promise he will never come back to me again. i cry all day looking for a genuine spell caster to help me bring him back. Then i saw a testimony share on the internet by miss Karen. i email him and tell him my problems with my ex husband, and he promise to bring him back home within 2 days. indeed he is wonderful he help me to get my husband back within 2days which he promise and my husband return to me and promise to love me forever and beg me for the pain he caused me. I will forever be grateful to you Dr Trust and i will not stop to publish your name on the internet for people to see how truthful you are. And I want to say to everyone on this site that I will always remain thankful to this man Dr. Trust for all he has done for me,My husband is back with love,caring,truthful and he promise to love me forever.I have made a promise that every body I know will never have a relationship problem, via email (Ultimatespellcast@gmail.com or Ultimatespellcast@yahoo.com call him +2348156885231)

    ReplyDelete


  17. Henderson Elizabeth
    Dr joy is a trust worthy spell caster and he will be of great help to you. I never believed in spell casting but After 4 years of marriage my husband left me because I lost my womb, and i was unable to give birth to children. I felt like my life has come to an end, and i almost committed suicide, i was emotionally down for a very long time, but thanks to this spell caster called Dr joy whom i met online after my friend Becky Ross told me how he also helped her to bring back her husband in less than 2 days. I believed her and decided to give Dr joy a try and i contacted him on his email joylovespell@gmail.com. and explained my problems to him. He laughed and told me that In less than 2 days, my Husband will come back to me again, and that he will restore my womb and i will give birth to children. At first i thought it was a joke but i took courage and believed as Dr joy has said and it did happen just as this Great spell caster said, My husband called me and was crying, begging for forgiveness. I forgive him and today i am so glad that all worries and problems has gone away, and we are even happier than before, another good news is that i am pregnant now, and very soon we will have our baby. Dr joy is really a gifted and a powerful spiritual man and i will not stop publishing him because he is a wonderful man. I advice you all If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems just Contact Dr joy on his email on joylovespell@gmail.com. because he will always help you to solve all problems. Once again thank you Dr joy. Thank you, thank you.
    you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2348100452479.

    ReplyDelete
  18. How i get my divorce husband back again with the good help of Dr. Trust powerful love spell...
    My name is Alicia Jane. When i read a testimony online on how Dr.Trust the great and most powerful spell caster help to bring back Divorce husband or wife EX LOVER. I was wondering how can this be true, Because many has failed me in the past without any result from them. I just let the post pass by and move on the forum. To my notice under again, Some person posted and said tested and trusted spell caster. After reading through the mail it was this same man Dr.Trust she was talking about. So i have no other option than to really check up how he works.I was totally devastated when my beloved husband left me. It was like my entire world vanishing into sorrow and pain. I know it sounds weird but out of all the spell casters I contacted, he was the only one to give me that impression of being so true and trustful. More than his words,He brought my husband back and he made all my wishes come true. He is now loyal, pays attention to me, he offers me flowers every Sunday, and we often go out at the cinema and the restaurant. my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. I will be forever thankful for turning my life from hell to heaven! i believe who need help should get to him for help. May God continue to use you to save broken relationship. To every one with marital problem, divorce issues, lost lover or any relationship related issues, you can contact Dr. Trust wonders the ultimate spell caster via email address Ultimatespellcast@gmail.com or Ultimatespellcast@yahoo.com

    His website: http://utimatespellcast.blogspot.com Call number +1 (317) 762-7416

    ReplyDelete
  19. Thank you for your miracle Dr Patrick This article is dedicated to the Dr Patrick. I have been married with my wife for 6 years and recently she broke up with me and it hurt me deeply when she told me to leave her alone and that she does not love me anymore when i was always faithful and honest to her. I tried all the ways to get her back buying her what she wants like i always did and she still left me heart broken and she even has a new boyfriend which destroyed me even more until a friend of mine from high school directed me to this genuine spell Dr called Patrick. This man changed my life completely. I followed everything he told me to do and my wife came back begging for me back. I was stunned everything happened exactly like he told me. I had faith in everything he told me and everything was true. Also he was there every moment until i got my happiness back and he also provides spells that cures impotence, bareness, diseases such as HIV/AID, Herpes, Cancer E.T.C. You can contact him via email at { drpatrickspellcaster@gmail.com }. He will help you in anything you need and quick to answer once you contact him through his whats-app number:+1 (662) 493 2087.

    ReplyDelete
  20. It just occur to me that I have not done the right thing since when my husband came back to me, I am on this blog to give thanks to whom it deserve, Some couples of weeks ago my life was in a terrible shape because my husband left me and I never believe that I was going to get him back, But through the help of this powerful spell caster called Dr.Ekpen my life is now in a joyful mood, I must recommend the services of Dr.Ekpen to anyone out there that they should contact Dr.Ekpen through these details below: ( ekpentemple@gmail.com ) or whatsapp +2347050270218 because through Dr.Ekpen assistance my marriage was restored.

    ReplyDelete