THROUGH A GLASS EXTREMELY DARKLY: Penrose wins the Nobel Prize!

MONDAY, OCTOBER 12, 2020

When professors and press intersect: Without any question, it's our favorite type of mainstream news report.

One example of the genre appeared on October 7. The piece reported a clear, distinct fact:

Roger Penrose had won the Nobel Prize in physics. 

At the New York Times, Dennis Overbye—no relation—was assigned the task of explaining what Penrose had won the prize for. The analysts crowded around, expectant. 

Overbye started like this:

OVERBYE (10/7/20): The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three astrophysicists Tuesday for work that was literally out of the world, and indeed the universe. They are Roger Penrose, an Englishman, Reinhard Genzel, a German, and Andrea Ghez, an American. They were recognized for their work on the gateways to eternity known as black holes, massive objects that swallow light and everything else forever that falls in their unsparing maws.

Dr. Penrose, a mathematician at Oxford University, was awarded half of the approximately $1.1 million prize for proving that black holes must exist if Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity, known as general relativity, is right.

Black holes must exist if Einstein's theory is right? An obvious question came to mind:

If Einstein's theory ever falls, must Penrose return the cash?

For the record, we assume that Penrose fully deserved the Nobel Prize. We assume that he's one of the world's greatest physicists, as he's long been described.

The amusement begins when Overbye starts discussing what Penrose has proven. The analysts crowded around, expectant.

Overbye started like this:

OVERBYE: Black holes were one of the first and most extreme predictions of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, first announced in November 1915. The theory explains the force we call gravity, as objects try to follow a straight line through a universe whose geometry is warped by matter and energy. As a result, planets as well as light beams follow curving paths, like balls going around a roulette wheel.

Einstein was taken aback a few months later when Karl Schwarzschild, a German astronomer, pointed out that the equations contained an apocalyptic prediction: In effect, cramming too much matter and energy inside too small a space would cause space-time to collapse into a point of infinite density called a singularity. In that place—if you could call it a place—neither Einstein’s equations nor any other physical law made sense.

Einstein could not fault the math, but he figured that in real life, nature would find a way to avoid such a calamity.

In 1965, however, a decade after Einstein’s death, Dr. Penrose slammed the door on Einstein’s hopes.

Question:

Should journalists ever say that material "objects"—things like planets—"try to do" certain things? Ideally, they probably shouldn't—but on this early point, we'll grant the Times a pass.

A more significant question arises. As a reader of the New York Times, do you have any idea what it means when Overbye seems to say that we're living in a universe "whose geometry is warped by matter and energy?"

Admit it—no, you don't! You couldn't explain that peculiar construction in a million years.

If it makes you feel any better, neither could anyone else! We'll guess that Overbye belongs to that group, especially after reading this:

OVERBYE: A talented mathematician, [Penrose] invented a new way of portraying space-time, called a Penrose diagram, which bypassed most of the mathematical complexities of general relativity.

His diagrams are now the lingua franca of cosmology. He proved that if too much mass accumulated in too small a place, collapse into a black hole was inevitable. At the boundary of a black hole, called the event horizon, you would have to go faster than the speed of light—the acknowledged cosmic speed limit—to get away. So you could never escape. Inside the boundary, time and space would switch roles and so all directions would lead downward, to the center, where the density became infinite and the laws of physics, as we knew them, would break down.

He showed that the black hole would become a gateway to the end of time, the end of the universe.

Just for starters, admit it! You'd have a hard time explaining the term "space-time," as would every other New York Times subscriber. 

You've heard the term a million times, but you couldn't really hope to explain it. In truth, you have no real idea what that term might be said to mean, or why anyone ever uses it.

Meanwhile, do you have any idea what it means when Overbye says that time and space "switch roles" inside a black hole? Do you have even the slightest idea what that could possibly mean?

New York Times subscriber, please! Of course—of course—you don't!

We're at our happiest when we get to read journalism of this type. At such moments, the Veil of Maya is torn away. We're given a glimpse of human mental functioning as it actually is.

Here's what we mean by that:

The New York Times is a general interest newspaper. That said, it's entirely possible that no subscriber (and no editor) could explain what Overbye's talking about in the passages we've posted. 

Did a million people read Overbye's report? If so, it's entirely possible that none of them could explain what he was saying. 

Despite this fact, editors at the New York Times put the report in print. It's entirely possible that they didn't realize that no one, themselves included, understand their news report.

Why would an editor do such a thing? What makes it possible that the editors didn't even realize that their report was incomprehensible?

The bulk of the later Wittgenstein's (admittedly murky) work was designed to answer such questions. Simply put, his answer might go like this:

Overbye's piece is full of sentences which share a "surface grammar" with other sentences which are perfectly comprehensible. That is to say, his sentences sound like other sentences we could easily process,  respond to, explain.

(Example: "After five years of marriage, the spouses switched roles. Spouse B accepted a teaching job and became the family's breadwinner. Spouse A stayed home with the kids." 

(No one would be puzzled by this use of the term "switched roles." It may seem to us that we understand this familiar term when it appears in Overbye's new, unfamiliar context, even though we actually don't.) 

Overbye's sentences are perfectly formed. They conform to standard grammar; they employ no obvious technical language. As a buttered pill may slide down a struggling dog's throat, they may slide past without arousing suspicion or concern.

It may seem to us that we know what they mean! Actually, though, we don't.

According to the later Wittgenstein, large amounts of high-end academic work conform to this pattern. It's easy to feel that we know what the statements in question mean. Under questioning, it would turn out that we don't.

Whenever the Times presents Overbye's work, readers are exposed to this broken attempt at communication. We read along, mouthing every word, perhaps gaining the impression that we understand what's been said.

We may feel that we understand. Truthfully, we don't.

By all accounts. Penrose is one of the world's greatest physicists. He also may have superhuman patience. According to Overbye's presentation, he's being honored for work he did in 1965!

We assume that Penrose's work on Einstein's theory and black holes was, and remains, correct. Still, we're never happier than at moments like this, when professors and press intersect.

In theory, professors and press are two components of our modern guardian class. In theory, they help us keep our flawed thinking on track as we navigate this veil of tears.

In truth, we often see through a glass extremely darkly when these elites intersect. We'll examine such couplings all week long, focusing on our failing nation's upcoming (scary) election. 

Commander in chief Donald J. Trump could still get re-elected! On balance, have our various press/professor couplings provided serious help?

Before we're done, we'll even return to Penrose himself—to a strange (alleged) idea. According to rueful anthropologists, we get a glimpse of our actual mental functioning at puzzling moments like this.

Tomorrow: The moral philosopher's research


33 comments:

  1. I will stipulate that I do not understand Einstein or Penrose or any other physicist when he or she talks about physics.

    I also do not believe the NY Times should be expected to explain in a few paragraphs the work that earned a Nobel Prize. If the findings of such people were readily explainable, it wouldn't require a Nobel Laureate to discover them.

    There is no reason why untutored laymen such as Somerby should understand the work awarded such a prize by peers in physics. And if Somerby does not understand it, why should a journalist -- a person who writes for a living and does not do physics, much less at a prize-winning level.

    But this is another excuse for Somerby to denigrate both the paper and its journalists. For what purpose? The net effect is to reinforce the anti-intellectualism that results in the election of someone like Trump.

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  2. I am watching the confirmation hearing. Ben Sasse just congratulated Amy Comey Barrett, then he congratulated Jessie Barrett. Why?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Because Jessie is going to have some hot confirmation sex.

      Delete
    2. Because Republicans like to maintain patriarchy even when magnanimously permitting a woman to hold a role God intended for men.

      James Brown - It's A Man's Man's Man's World

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  3. "Commander in chief Donald J. Trump could still get re-elected! On balance, have our various press/professor couplings provided serious help?"

    Professors have their own political beliefs, but it isn't their job to use their position as professor to influence students politically. Journalists use their jobs to report current events, not to campaign for any candidate. Neither is supposed to be partisan.

    Meanwhile, what has Somerby done to help combat the forces of evil trying to reelect Trump? Somerby's contribution is so questionable that it frequently appears as if he is on the other side, actively trying to put Trump in office for a second term.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Somerby's title "Through a Glass Extremely Darkly" refers to the understanding of journalists, but cannot refer to Penrose or Einstein, since they are the ones shedding light on the workings of the cosmos.

    Somerby is full of gloom and doom, but the fact that Penrose and Einstein exist and did their work is hopeful. Both men dedicated their lives to science and their achievements did not occur in a moment but as the result of years of thinking and intellectual labor.

    It is not necessary for everyone to understand their results. It is certainly not necessary, nor expected, that any journalist would understand it. Somerby should not be putting that burden on himself or others.

    Science makes progress collectively, not individually. Every accomplishment rests on the shoulders of those who came before. That is why scientists must study their field for years before making their own progress, even if they have intuitions about their ultimate contributions early on.

    This progress is the hope of humanity. Somerby's lack of understanding about how science works may be why he is so lacking in hope about outcomes for our species. But his depressed musings are not profound. They should be shared with a shrink. He is not writing anything useful to anyone here, certainly not himself. I refuse to join him in condemning journalists because they are not Einstein or Penrose. Neither am I.

    ReplyDelete
  5. "Commander in chief Donald J. Trump could still get re-elected! "

    More importantly, The Commander should be reelected, dear Bob.

    Because people do want peace and prosperity, and that is what the Commander has delivered.

    True, liberal-hitlerian establishment is still strong, and its liberal cult commands a whole army of zombies, but let us hope, dear Bob.

    ReplyDelete
  6. “You'd have a hard time explaining the term "space-time," as would every other New York Times subscriber. 
    You've heard the term a million times, but you couldn't really hope to explain it. In truth, you have no real idea what that term might be said to mean, or why anyone ever uses it.”

    Message to Somerby’s readers: you are as ignorant as Somerby.

    Somerby implies that physicists are engaged in “word games” when they use terms like “space time” or “warped geometry.”

    Wittgenstein was referring to philosophy when he made the charge about “word games.”

    On the other hand, physicists are trying to describe the universe as it actually exists, and to do so, they rely on mathematics. The descriptions they use, like “space time”, are an attempt to use English phrases to translate mathematics into ordinary language. The mathematics results in some things that, when described, sound counterintuitive, but yet have been verified through experimentation.

    I could suggest that the term “space time” means that space and time, according to Einstein, are inseparable phenomena.

    But none of this has ever mattered to Somerby.

    Maybe he’ll circle back around to mocking Bertrand Russell, as he threatened to do the other day and make himself look foolish again.

    It’s a free country.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. To say that space and time are inseparable reads to me like gibberish. Wittgenstein like. We understand, or think we do, what space is, and also what time is, but perhaps not if we think too deeply about them.

      Physicists since Einstein have been talking about space-time and gravity wells, and maybe that math allows them to make predictions, but does that make it real?

      They also write about what they think happened between t = 10E-98 seconds after the big bang until 10E-97 seconds. (approximately). Sure, and no doubt they have experimentation to verify that too.

      To me, to call time a dimension ignores the obvious observable fact that, unlike x, y, and z, we cannot control our movement through time. I can move forward and backward along the x, y, and z axes, or I can stand still. Not so with t where I can only be hurled forward at the rate of 1 second per second, or if I goto Switzerland at the slightly slower rate of .9999999999999999 seconds per second. (actually as I considered that further, I realize I also have no control over much of my motion in space. The earth turns, revolves, the sun revolves, the galaxy revolves and also blasts through space - none of which I can alter in any way. 60,000 mph I am spinning around the sun. Can't stop that any more than I can stop the flow of time.)

      My fun fact of the day is that if you had a beach ball with twice the radius of Pluto's orbit and you could fill it with air (maybe by attaching it to Trump's mouth during a debate) that beach ball would be a black hole.

      My point is, that very large black holes, rather than being earth shattering, they, like the universe we live in, can be mostly empty space.

      That is fairly simple math that I performed ten billion seconds ago as a high school junior. Take the formula for escape velocity. Set V equal to the speed of light, change the size of R and calculate for mass. An object with that R and that mass would be a black hole. Then calculate for the density of said object.

      As you increase R, the density goes down. A beach ball as big as the milky way that was a black hole would have a density of 6.4E-16 kg/m3. That looks like empty space to me, but at that density the beach ball would have the mass of 1.69E17 suns. Which would require about 400,000 times more stars than it has now.

      Delete
    2. I know enough to understand that I probably don't mean or understand the same thing by the words "space" and "time" as a physicist does.

      Somerby likes to confuse everyday meanings of words with technical meanings, pretending that one meaning is relevant in a context where it is not. That is dirty pool in both the pragmatics of language and semantics. I think Somerby does it on purpose and that is an ugly trick, like getting a puppy drunk on beer. It isn't funny and it isn't nice.

      Delete
    3. 9:49, "Dr" T is trolling you, his assertions on physics are gibberish.

      Delete
    4. @Dr. T,
      This should be the anthem of dear Bob's blog, we think.

      Delete
  7. Did Trump win his Nobel Peace Prize?

    Bwahahahahahahahahhahahahahahhahahahhhahhahahahahaha

    ReplyDelete
  8. I understand that some of you like to come on here and rip Somerby every day, but surely, even you understand that the point of the column is that a major American newspaper pretended to explain the work of the Nobel Prize winners while doing no such thing. Either explain their work in words that make sense to an average reader of the paper or don't try.

    The entire point of this blog is that major American media fail to do what they're supposed to be doing, day in, day out. Pretty simple really. Well, I guess not for some of you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No one can explain what these people win Nobel prizes for in a few paragraphs. That was MY point. Somerby is wrong to chastise the press.

      Delete
    2. Surely you jest when you think that Somerby is merely offering sober critiques of errors in journalism. Perhaps you are vying for the nomination of the Excessive Literalist Party.

      Somerby does like to push the notion that some things are hard, too hard, so let's throw our hands up in the air and give up; more power to him.

      The NY Times has a relatively paltry subscriber base and is losing money. They have recently announced that cutting jobs will be part of their agenda of cutting costs in light of diminishing revenues over the last decade. Since their agenda is neoliberal and corporatist, few will shed a tear as they continue their slow fade into obscurity.

      Imagine, Lennon-like, that everyone understood physics like Einstein. What a silly silly clown Somerby is. Indeed most people understand black holes enough to know that a fuller understanding of black holes is not essential to having a healthy and happy life and society. (Would much prefer if Penrose and turned his intellect towards environmental science, but at least he is not as bad an opportunist as Hawking.)

      The NY Times did write an article recently about Trump's taxes, which revealed his penchant for tax fraud and lack of business acuity. This is a more pressing issue, and the article was clear and easy to understand, yet Somerby made a major error in complaining about the article. In fact Somerby was just plain wrong. High humor, but not funny.

      Delete
  9. I would have a gripe with the Times coverage of Penrose if the article had been written in a kind of pretend first person plural, was dizzyingly repetitive, and rambled on forever.

    ReplyDelete
  10. The entire point of Somerby’s entry here is to appear intellectual by serving up another helping of Wittgenstein, irrespective of its relevance.He would rather the NYT not cover the Nobel Prize if the subject matter is beyond his grasp.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. As evidence, note Somerby's reference to a Bergman film he has probably not seen, given that it has absolutely no relevance to anything in his post.

      You could argue that it was a 1 Corinthians 13 reference except that the translation is from the Swedish film title, not the Bible.

      Delete
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    Hello viewers, I living in South Africa , I am very happy to share this amazing testimony, I was hurt and heart broken when my husband left me with our two children, I was confused and didn't know what to do, I loved him so much, I tried all I could to bring him back but to no avail, on one faithfully day as I was coming from work I met a friend of mine whom I explain my problem to, and she told me of a spell caster called "Dr Sambo" whom also make her pregnant when she was looking for a child, I contacted the spell caster through the email she gave to me, and the spell caster told me what to do and I did exactly as I was told,  to my grates surprise, my husband who has not called me for a very long time, called me and start apologizing for all the wrongs he did to me, and now  he loved me more than ever before, brothers and sisters if you are passing through any kind problem contact him and i give you 100% guarantee that he will solve your problems. this is his contacts divinespellhome@gmail.com whatsapp mobile line +2348145810121

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  19. I want to share this wonderful testimony to the Good people all over the world on how I was able to Enlarge my Penis by Dr. Aziba. I was living a shameful life from my young age, just last month as I was browsing on the internet about Penis size  and Enlargement Products, I saw a testimony of a Man called Tim James testifying of how he was able to get his penis Enlarged by Dr. Aziba and I decided to also Email Dr. Aziba for my small penis size and he quickly respond to me and gave me the normal instructions which i did and then he shipped the product to me here in the united state which i received in just 3 working days and today i am very happy because i started seeing positive changes in my penis size in just 7 days of use.  Dr Aziba herbal product is the best recommended for you and to whom ever suffering from this shame or having any other diseases as well should Contact this great herbal doctor via his Email : Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com and WhatsApp Him on +2348100368288

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  20. (RESTORED MARRIAGE) I PROMISE TO TELL THE WORLD MY TESTIMONY...

    Hello everyone, I am happy to share this Wonderful Testimony to the world... I'm  Victoria Matins and i am from Scotland. My husband and I have been married for 9 years with 3 kids, my husband and I had a little fight because of the way he has been going to nightclubs and keeping late nights and he has been cheating on me with another lady called bella, so because of this he wanted to divorce me and move in with her, i was so afraid to lose him because of our kids and i love him very much so i search online for help and i saw a lot of people's testimonies on how Dr BALBOSA help them and came out with positive results like Divorces, Cancers, lotteries, fertilities and others. So I emailed him and told him my problem and he responded and he told me what to do and I did it as he instructed, 24 hours later he told me he is done with the spell and my husband will no longer divorce me and he will always love me like never before. The next day my husband called me and apologized for all he had done to me and I was so happy to welcome him back to my life..so i decided to share this testimony to the world...I thank Dr BALBOSA for his help... If you are having a similar issue please contact him today for help...his email is: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com and you can also add him on call and WhatsApp +2347048047728...stay safe from Victoria Martins..



    (RESTORED MARRIAGE) I PROMISE TO TELL THE WORLD MY TESTIMONY...

    Hello everyone, I am happy to share this Wonderful Testimony to the world... I'm  Victoria Matins and i am from Scotland. My husband and I have been married for 9 years with 3 kids, my husband and I had a little fight because of the way he has been going to nightclubs and keeping late nights and he has been cheating on me with another lady called bella, so because of this he wanted to divorce me and move in with her, i was so afraid to lose him because of our kids and i love him very much so i search online for help and i saw a lot of people's testimonies on how Dr BALBOSA help them and came out with positive results like Divorces, Cancers, lotteries, fertilities and others. So I emailed him and told him my problem and he responded and he told me what to do and I did it as he instructed, 24 hours later he told me he is done with the spell and my husband will no longer divorce me and he will always love me like never before. The next day my husband called me and apologized for all he had done to me and I was so happy to welcome him back to my life..so i decided to share this testimony to the world...I thank Dr BALBOSA for his help... If you are having a similar issue please contact him today for help...his email is: balbosasolutionhome@gmail.com and you can also add him on call and WhatsApp +2347048047728...stay safe from Victoria Martins..

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